Your body is a fascinating and complex organism that adapts to the stresses of any new environment to keep you alive. By exposing yourself to bursts of stress like Data-Driven Fasting, your body can adapt to thrive.
When you start out with DDF, all you need to do is follow the process without overthinking it. But as things progress, a little bit of understanding can be a good thing, too. This section of the FAQs covers the many questions that often arise as people start tracking and taming their blood sugars.
- 7.1 What Is A ‘Good’ Trigger Value?
- 7.2 What Is the Optimal Blood Sugar Level for Fat Burning?
- 7.3 What Is a Healthy Waking Glucose Level?
- 7.4 What Is Dawn Phenomenon?
- 7.5 How Does ‘That Time of The Month’ Affect Blood Glucose for Women?
- 7.6 Why Does My Blood Glucose Fall After I Eat?
- 7.7 Why Would My Blood Glucose Rise After a Low-Carb, High-Protein Meal?
- 7.8 Will Fasting Help My Gut Health?
- 7.9 How is DDF Different from Zoe or Day 2?
- 7.10 What Is the Glucose Ketone Index (Or Dr Boz Ratio)?
- 7.11 Will Data-Driven Fasting Help Me Lose Weight If I Don’t Have Diabetes?
- 7.12 How Can I Optimise My Sleep with Intermittent Fasting?
- 7.13 How Much Should My Blood Glucose Rise After A Meal?
- 7.14 Do I Need to Worry About ‘Insulin Toxicity’?
- 7.15 How Long Will It Take to Train My Hunger?
- 7.16 What If My Blood Glucose Rises Again Before I Eat?
- 7.18 Why Is My Waking Blood Sugar the Highest of The Day?
- 7.19 Why Do I Get Cold When Fast?
- 7.20 Why Do I Get Headaches When I Fast?
7.1 What Is A ‘Good’ Trigger Value?
We find it interesting to see how we compare with everyone else to understand how far we must go to catch up with others.
The charts below show pre-meal trigger values during baselining vs waking glucose (in mmol/L and mg/dL). As you manage your pre-meal trigger value, your waist, body fat, and waking glucose levels will follow.
While the average trigger value during baselining is 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L), you can continue to delay your meals as you chase a trigger value down to 4.0 mmol/L (72 mg/dL) or even lower if you feel OK. However, most people will have reached a healthy weight and body fat level before they get below 4.0 mmol/L or 72 mg/dL.
7.2 What Is the Optimal Blood Sugar Level for Fat Burning?
You are constantly burning a combination of fat and glucose. We tend to burn more glucose when doing an intense activity and more fat during rest or during lower-intensity activities.
But if you have a lot of glucose in your system, you won’t be burning as much fat because your body must burn through the glucose first because of oxidative priority.
Counterintuitively, when we measure respiratory quotient, we find that people who are obese and insulin-resistant tend to primarily burn glucose at rest despite having a lot of fat in storage.
As you wait until your glucose drops below your Personalised Trigger before you eat, you will ensure that you are burning more fat at the end of each fasting period.
As you slowly lower your premeal trigger through repeated cycles of short term ‘fasting’ and nutrient-dense feasting, you will be burning more fat and less glucose as you drain excess glucose backed up in storage.
As the glucose in your blood and glycogen in your liver drop, your body will turn to fat for fuel. Therefore, as long as you are not supplying excess dietary fat, you will be burning body fat when your glucose levels are lower.
7.3 What Is a Healthy Waking Glucose Level?
As you can see from the chart below (from Association between fasting glucose and all-cause mortality), the lowest overall risk of dying from any cause aligns with a fasting glucose between 80 and 100 mg/dL (4.4 to 5.6 mmol/L).
If your waking blood glucose is in the optimal range, it means:
- you are insulin sensitive,
- your insulin levels are low,
- your body fat can absorb extra energy from your food, and
- you do not have excess energy backing up into your bloodstream.
It’s important to note here that a lower waking glucose isn’t necessarily better. Very low waking glucose (e.g., below 76 mg/dL or 4.2 mmol/L), while rare, tends to correspond to anorexia, poor immunity and fragility.
It’s also important to note that waking glucose is just one of the parameters that you can use to gauge your overall metabolic health. Counterintuitively, people on a lower-carb diet will tend to see higher waking glucose levels and lower glucose levels during the day while people on a high carb diet will tend to have lower waking glucose and higher glucose levels over the day.
Body fat and waist:height ratio are also useful markers to understand your overall level of metabolic health. Below 25% body fat for women and below 15% for men is a great goal, while a waist to height ratio of less than 0.5 is ideal. Again, pushing significantly below these levels may not be healthy or sustainable.
You can track your waking glucose in the DDF app as a marker of metabolic health. However, it’s not critical to the DDF process and does not affect your trigger. Keep in mind that you may see your waking glucose increase initially as insulin drops, your stored energy is released, and you start to lose weight. Later, you may see your waking glucose stabilise at a lower level once you switch to Maintenance Mode.
Waking glucose isn’t something you can easily “hack”. Lower waking glucose follows as you chase a lower premeal glucose trigger, lose body fat and improve your overall metabolic health.
7.4 What Is Dawn Phenomenon?
As your body prepares to wake in the morning, melatonin decreases while cortisol and adrenaline rise. Your body releases glucagon from the liver to increase the glucose in your bloodstream, so you are fuelled and ready to bounce out of bed and start the day.
This increase in glucose is stimulated by glucagon and is usually balanced by insulin. This duo ensures your blood glucose is regulated and doesn’t rise too much. People with Type-1 Diabetes typically see their insulin requirements the lowest overnight, with a rise a few hours before they wake up as their liver pushes out glucose to start the day.
People with some insulin resistance may find that their blood glucose increases more in the morning due to what is known as the Dawn Phenomenon. While some rise in glucose in the morning is normal, increased insulin resistance means that the glucose released from the liver is not balanced adequately with insulin to stabilise blood glucose.
There is no need to eat immediately if your blood glucose is high in the morning, especially if you are not hungry. But when you do start to feel hungry, rather than waiting until your blood glucose is below your trigger, you can choose to have a higher protein meal.
Prioritising protein earlier in the day often causes blood glucose to fall, and you can eat again sooner, rather than waiting all day. As you draw down on your excess fuel, you will start to see your waking blood glucose come down and a smaller rise due to the dawn phenomenon.
7.5 How Does ‘That Time of The Month’ Affect Blood Glucose for Women?
Females of reproductive age should be aware that cravings, blood glucose, and insulin sensitivity vary throughout the month.
Women with Type-1 Diabetes find their insulin requirements increase in the days leading up to their period before dropping once menses commences. Insulin requirements rise after ovulation until a few days before menses commences. This largely follows the variations in progesterone.
Cravings, water retention, and associated water weight gain also increase in the days leading up to menstruation. So, you may need to be more gracious when waiting for your blood glucose to drop if it’s ‘that time of the month’. You need to understand that your body is preparing for a possible pregnancy and craving more energy and nutrients, particularly protein.
You may want to accept a slightly higher trigger value or default to your regular eating routine and just eat when you are hungry during this time rather than fighting the process too much.
The DDF app will allow you to log ‘menses’ when you log a pre-meal trigger value. This will give you a temporarily elevated trigger, so you don’t have to battle with your trigger unnecessarily during this time.
For more discussion, see What to Eat for Each Phase of Your Monthly Menstrual Cycle.
7.6 Why Does My Blood Glucose Fall After I Eat?
Some people are surprised to find that their blood glucose drops after they eat. This is not cause for concern but rather a positive sign that you are metabolically healthy or not overeating carbohydrates.
Because glucose and fat stores in your liver are depleted after an overnight fast, many people see their blood glucose drop after their first meal. Any energy they eat goes to replenish the stores in their liver rather than backing up into their bloodstream.
When you eat a higher protein meal, your pancreas secretes some insulin to enable you to use the amino acids to repair muscles and organs, make neurotransmitters, and a host of other functions. Glucagon is also released by your pancreas to balance insulin, as shown in this chart (from Marks’ Basic Medical Biochemistry).
For someone below their Personal Fat Threshold, this balance of insulin and glucagon means that blood glucose will remain stable. Blood glucose may even decrease, which is an indication that you have plenty of spare capacity to absorb the meal you just ate, and energy from your meal is not overflowing into your bloodstream.
Testing your glucose response to a high protein meal can be a useful measure of insulin resistance vs insulin sensitivity and whether you are above your Personal Fat Threshold. If you see your blood glucose drop after a high protein meal, then you know you’re reasonably metabolically healthy.
Conversely, if you see your blood glucose rise, you know you have some level of insulin resistance. However, the solution is not to avoid protein. Instead, you should reduce carbs and fat while prioritising protein to decrease your body fat levels below your Personal Fat Threshold.
7.7 Why Would My Blood Glucose Rise After a Low-Carb, High-Protein Meal?
Someone who is insulin resistant or has diabetes has (i.e. insufficient insulin to maintain stable blood glucose). This person may see their blood glucose rise after a high protein meal as glucagon kicks in to tell the liver to release stored glycogen. Insulin is also released to keep blood glucose stable.
If someone is insulin resistant, their insulin does not work effectively, and their blood glucose is not suppressed. Therefore, insulin-resistant people can see a rise in blood glucose after a high protein meal because they have insufficient insulin to simultaneously metabolise the protein and suppress glucagon release from their liver.
Some people see this rise in glucose and think they should avoid protein to maintain stable blood glucose. However, this may make things worse. If you are insulin resistant (i.e. Type2 Diabetes) or your pancreas is not producing enough insulin (e.g., Type-1 Diabetes), you will likely lose protein through gluconeogenesis. If this is the case for you, you will likely benefit by focusing on a higher protein percentage to ensure you don’t end up having to overeat to get the protein your body needs.
If you are insulin resistant because you carry excess body fat, the solution is to focus on foods with a higher protein percentage to increase satiety. This will enable you to lose body fat without losing too much lean mass.
If you are already lean (i.e., waist:height ratio less than 0.5) and you see elevated blood glucose after a low-carb, high-protein meal, then it may be helpful to talk to your doctor to get your fasting insulin and c-peptide measured. This will help you understand if your pancreas can produce enough insulin to rule out Type-1 Diabetes or MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young).
For more details, see Why Does My Blood Sugar Drop (or Rise) After Eating Protein?
7.8 Will Fasting Help My Gut Health?
While it can be hard to adjust to solid food after fasting for multiple days, many people find that intermittent fasting improves their digestion and gut health. As we eat more than we need more often than we need to, our gut struggles to keep up, and we get indigestion and bacterial overgrowth.
Conversely, when we eat less, we give our stomachs a chance to rest. The excess ‘bad bacteria’ (e.g., Firmicutes) associated with obesity die off as they are not continually overfed with nutrient-poor inflammatory foods. The ‘good bacteria’ (e.g., Bacteroidetes) associated with healthy body weight can flourish.
7.9 How is DDF Different from Zoe or Day 2?
There is a technological arms race to create a patented system to provide personalised nutrition recommendations based on the analysis of your poop.
Zoe is a technology start-up company spearheaded by Professor Tim Spector that seeks to provide personalised nutritional advice based on analysis of the gut microbiome. To get your personalised nutritional prescription from Zoe, you send your ‘poo in the post’ to their lab for analysis (USD$350, plus USD$59 for app access after six months).
You also test your glucose (using a CGM) and fat response to standardised low-fat and high-fat muffins. While the well-funded Zoe team are publishing fascinating data powered by complex Artificial Intelligence algorithms, this level of testing and analysis is potentially excessive for most people.
Day 2 is a similar service that provides meal recommendations based on your stool analysis. Their work is based on a 2015 study Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses which identified that people could have markedly different glucose responses to the same food. Therefore, they hypothesised that they could design a diet to stabilise blood sugars based on a complex (and patented) analysis of your gut bacteria.
There is no doubt some interaction between your blood sugars, body weight, and microbiome. However, the relationship between the three is incredibly complex. It’s impossible to tease out correlation vs causation and determine how to use this data to guide dietary choices. The experts haven’t yet defined what a ‘good vs bad’ microbiome profile looks like, let alone what you should eat to make yours better.
No matter how much data or computing power is applied to the task, we may never reach the point that anyone can tell you what to eat by looking at what goes down the toilet. Without an intelligent application of a fundamental understanding of how your body uses energy from your food, particularly how your glucose and fat fuel tanks interact, we risk paralysis by analysis and falling victim to garbage in – garbage out (GIGO).
As shown in the figure below from the Zoe PREDICT 1 study, despite the hype, your gut microbiome is NOT a strong predictor of your glucose or fat response to food. Instead, meal composition, genetics, meal context, and current blood sugar levels have a more significant effect than your microbiome.
What we can see from the PREDICT1 study data is that:
- the macronutrient composition (i.e., the mixture of carbs, fat, and protein) of food has the most significant impact on your blood glucose response to a meal, while
- the amount of fat already in your blood has the most significant impact on the rise in the fat in your blood after you eat. In other words, if your system is already full of energy, there is nowhere for the extra energy to go.
This aligns with our understanding of how our glucose and fat fuel tanks work in our bodies. If your fat stores are full, any excess fuel cannot be absorbed, backs up in the system, and overflows in your bloodstream.
If you eat in a way that gives your body the nutrients from the food that it needs to function and attain a more optimal body composition, your gut bacteria will likely look after itself as it continually adapts to the food you feed it.
While there will always be some variability in your glucose response to the foods you eat, our analysis of the Food Insulin Index data gives us a solid understanding of factors affecting our short-term insulin and glucose responses to foods. We have used this understanding to identify foods and meals that will allow you to stabilise your glucose to healthy levels.
Rather than prescribing a meal plan and recipes designed for someone else, the DDF app allows you to track your glucose response to the foods you eat to empower you to create a shortlist of meals that you enjoy eating that work for your unique metabolism.
In the Data-Driven Fasting 30-Day Challenge, we use simpler, less invasive, and more cost-effective biometrics to guide your dietary choices:
- If your blood sugars after meals rise by more than 1.6 mmol/L (30 mg/dL), the DDF app will guide you to reduce your intake of processed carbs until your blood sugars stabilise.
- If your waist: height ratio is > 0.5 and your blood sugars are in the healthy range after dialling back carbs, you will also likely need to cut back on your fat intake. This allows blood sugars to drop more quickly after meals and eat nutrient-dense meals again sooner.
Not only will your blood sugars and body composition improve as you stop eating too much too often, but your gut microbiome will become healthier too.
7.10 What Is the Glucose Ketone Index (Or Dr Boz Ratio)?
The GKI is simply your glucose (in mmol/L) divided by your ketones (also in mmol/L). More recently, Dr Annette Bosworth has popularised the Dr Boz Ratio, which is glucose (in mg/dL) divided by ketones (in mmol/L).
The GKI is based on the belief that if glucose is low and ketones are high, insulin levels will be low, and you’re in good metabolic health. But conversely, if your glucose is high and ketones are low when you fast, then your insulin levels are likely high. This indicates that you have some level of insulin resistance that you need to attend to.
The problem, however, comes when people don’t differentiate between endogenous ketones that are made from your body fat when you’re fasting vs exogenous ketones that are from the fat in the food you just ate, added MCT oil, or ketone supplements.
The vast majority of benefits that are often attributed to ketosis come from the energy deficit. If you are jamming in thousands of empty calories of nutrient-poor fats to raise ketones to get a higher GKI or Dr Boz ratio, then you will be driving up insulin levels as your pancreas has to work overtime to hold the added energy in storage.
The good news is, you will likely be producing plenty of ketones from your body fat if you chase a lower pre-meal blood glucose. So, you don’t need to worry about wasting money measuring ketones because they don’t give you any guidance about what or when you should eat.
Hence, we strongly recommend you skip the expense and confusion of testing ketones and focus on pre-meal blood sugars that give you actionable data.
For more detail, see Is the Acetone:Glucose Ratio the Holy Grail of Tracking Optimal Ketosis?
7.11 Will Data-Driven Fasting Help Me Lose Weight If I Don’t Have Diabetes?
Data-Driven Fasting will work for most people trying to lose weight, even if they don’t meet the criteria for diabetes.
While Type-2 Diabetes is diagnosed when you have a fasting glucose of greater than 125 mg/dL or 7.0 mmol/L, you can use Data-Driven Fasting to drive your pre-meal trigger down to much lower levels (e.g., 70 mg/dL or 3.9 mmol/L). As you do this, your weight and body fat levels will follow.
The one scenario where Data-Driven Fasting may not be as effective is when people have been on a high fat, low protein ketogenic diet for a long time. These people may already have very low blood sugars, which don’t vary much after eating but still have a lot of fat to lose. Our Macros Masterclass tends to be more effective to help them fine-tune their macros to suit their goals (e.g., prioritise protein and reduce fat to facilitate fat loss).
7.12 How Can I Optimise My Sleep with Intermittent Fasting?
Not eating too late in the day seems to help us sleep better. According to Professor Matthew Walker in his book Why We Sleep, we don’t enter REM sleep while burning off a lot of energy from a late dinner.
This survey of Oura Ring users shows that not eating too late is by far the most beneficial ‘hack’ to ensure sound sleep based on their quantitative data.
Don’t be surprised if you find you sleep more soundly as your blood glucose decreases because your body is not working so hard to process excess energy overnight.
On the flip side, it’s also good not to be too hungry when you go to bed. If you find you wake up through the night because you are hungry, you may need to eat something a bit closer to bedtime. A little carbohydrate at your last meal may be beneficial to raise glucose into the normal range to ensure your body doesn’t think it’s starving overnight.
Your body prioritises burning off alcohol, which can keep your metabolic rate elevated. So, try to avoid too much alcohol later at night. Similarly, protein requires a lot of energy to metabolise, so it’s ideal if you don’t try to consume your full days’ worth of protein just before bed. In contrast, carbs and fat are metabolised more easily (i.e., they have a lower Dietary Induced Thermogenesis) and thus will give you a better chance at a sound sleep.
7.13 How Much Should My Blood Glucose Rise After A Meal?
Data-Driven Fasting primarily focuses on blood glucose before meals to ensure you are reducing the excess energy stores in your body. As insulin sensitivity improves, waking blood glucose and post-meal blood glucose should also decrease.
If you see your blood glucose rise by more than 30 mg/dL or 1.6 mmol/L in the one to two hours after you eat, it means that you likely ate too much or too many carbohydrates at that meal. You should either avoid that meal or eat less of it in the future. Your glucose tank is already full, so you don’t need more carbs.
Many people find their blood glucose rises more after dinner, which is an indication that their energy stores are being overfilled. As a result, they may benefit by reducing the size of their dinner and prioritising larger meals earlier in the day when their energy tanks are not as full.
You can use the hourly glucose charts in the DDF app to tailor your meal choices and routine to avoid having the majority of post-meal glucose values above the upper limit line (i.e., 1.6 mg/dL or 30 mg/dL).
Once you master this, you can focus on your pre-meal blood sugars and delay your meals to reduce your Personalised Trigger.
The rise in glucose after you eat is more a reflection of what you ate. On the contrary, your fasting blood glucose and your glucose before meals indicate your metabolic health and whether you are over-fuelling throughout the day.
7.14 Do I Need to Worry About ‘Insulin Toxicity’?
Many people focus on insulin toxicity as the ‘root cause’ of diabetes and metabolic disease. Hence, they see reducing insulin as the end goal. However, if you are part of the 98.5% of the population with a functioning pancreas that is not injecting insulin to manage Type1 Diabetes, your body won’t produce more insulin than you need to keep body fat in storage when food is coming in from your mouth.
When someone with Type-1 Diabetes accidentally injects too much insulin, their liver will reduce the release of energy into the bloodstream, and their blood glucose will drop quickly. This causes them to feel ravenously hungry and they will be driven to eat anything and everything to bring their blood sugar levels back up.
However, unless you are either a Type-1 or insulin-dependent Type-2 diabetic injecting insulin, high insulin levels do not cause overeating or obesity. The reverse is true: high insulin levels cause overeating and obesity. Therefore, rather than worrying about ‘insulin toxicity’, we should focus on managing energy toxicity and insulin will look after itself.
The Carbohydrate – Insulin Hypothesis simplistically assumes:
carbs -> insulin -> fat storage
However, it is a little more complex than this. It’s critical to understand the true cause-and-effect relationship. Rather than addressing the symptom of high insulin, we need to focus our effort and attention on the root cause. A rise in insulin is simply the response to increased body fat. It is not the cause! Instead, the real cause is:
low satiety, nutrient-poor foods -> increased cravings and appetite to get the nutrients we need -> increased energy intake -> fat storage -> increased insulin
Hence, the solution to managing diabetes, blood glucose, and insulin levels and dodging the complications of metabolic syndrome is:
high–satiety, nutrient-dense foods and meals -> decreased cravings and appetite -> decreased energy intake -> fat loss -> lower insulin levels
By managing your pre-meal blood glucose by waiting to eat until you need to refuel, you will reduce your body fat. In turn, insulin levels will reduce.
We designed Data-Driven Fasting to keep things as simple as possible by shifting your primary focus to blood glucose before meals to draw down on glucose and fat stored in the body, subsequently reducing your insulin levels across the day.
For more detail, see:
7.15 How Long Will It Take to Train My Hunger?
People with elevated blood glucose tend to have dysregulated hunger signals and find it hard to judge their true hunger. So, monitoring blood glucose is a great way to train your hunger if you are overweight or have elevated blood glucose.
Many fascinating studies (e.g. Training to estimate blood glucose and to form associations with initial hunger) have shown that people can learn to predict their blood glucose from their sensations of hunger.
After several weeks of testing blood glucose, people can get a good feel for their blood glucose when they are truly hungry based on their symptoms, like their stomach rumbling, changes in energy levels, becoming food focussed or mental fatigue.
When you log your blood glucose in the DDF app, it’s critical to take a moment to observe your hunger and log your current hunger level. This moment of self-reflection is critical to help you calibrate your hunger signals going forward.
Once you can predict your blood glucose and rate your hunger based on your symptoms, you will be able to wait until you are hungry to eat. From there, you can wean yourself off the measuring and rely on your hunger signals.
7.16 What If My Blood Glucose Rises Again Before I Eat?
The goal of Data-Driven Fasting is to validate your hunger using your blood glucose.
If your blood glucose is below your trigger when you feel hungry, you have successfully depleted the glycogen in your liver and have started to burn body fat. You are ready to refuel again!
When they test again before they eat, some people have found that their blood glucose may have risen while preparing their meals. It is perfectly normal for your body to release glucose into your bloodstream:
- when it anticipates food is coming,
- as part of the normal process of maintaining stable blood glucose, and
- if it gets stressed by low blood glucose and hunger.
The ‘secret’ here is not to test again. Go ahead and eat if you are hungry and your blood glucose has dipped below your trigger.
This is one of the downsides we see with people using continuous glucose monitors, as it can provide more data than necessary.
In Data-Driven Fasting, we want to use the minimum effective dose of measurement to ensure you move progressively rather than become overwhelmed and give up before you reach your goal.
7.18 Why Is My Waking Blood Sugar the Highest of The Day?
If you have plenty of stored body fat, your body will release it as energy overnight into your bloodstream, even if you follow a lower-carb diet.
Your body can make glucose from protein and even the fat you eat and the fat on your body. So, if you have excess energy stored in your body, the glucose you’re consuming from food will back up in your system and overflow into your bloodstream.
Making sure you are not overeating too late may help decrease waking blood sugars. However, reducing your body fat levels to more optimal levels may take some time. To do this, you need to keep chasing a lower pre-meal blood sugar by delaying your meals. You also must ensure you are eating nutrient-dense, high-satiety meals when you do eat.
Counterintuitively, people on a higher fat diet often see higher blood glucose levels in the morning, particularly when they eat more fat at night. If your waking glucose is elevated, you could experiment with eating less fat and perhaps in your evening meal when your blood glucose is lower. Over time, by using your blood glucose to guide what and when to eat, you may find that your blood glucose levels become more consistent across the day.
7.19 Why Do I Get Cold When Fast?
Interestingly, some people find that one of their symptoms of lower blood sugar is being cold. This is because when your body has less fuel available, it slows the amount of energy it uses to save energy.
You should take this as a sign that you are hungry and ready to eat. If there is food available, your body won’t let you be cold and miserable for too long before your appetite kicks in and you wake Lizzy.
If you feel cold regularly, you should ensure you are getting adequate protein when you eat. Not only does protein help you maintain your precious muscle, but it also produces more heat as you digest and metabolise it (i.e., the thermic effect of food).
7.20 Why Do I Get Headaches When I Fast?
As well as energy, your body stores toxins in your body fat. As you lose weight, these stored toxins will flow into your bloodstream and need to be processed and excreted by your kidneys. People who fast for extended periods can get bad headaches due to these toxins, which overload the body and often drive them to stop fasting and eat again.
If you find you are getting headaches, you should make sure you are drinking plenty of fluids. Some electrolytes (e.g., salty water or our Optimised Electrolyte Mix recipe) can also help when your body excretes electrolytes when your blood sugars drop. However, with Data-Driven Fasting, most people find that headaches are minimal because they are losing weight at a sustainable rate so their body can process the toxins.
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