High Satiety Index Foods:  Which Ones Will Keep You Full With Fewer Calories?

Satiety, or satisfying your cravings for fewer calories, is the holy grail of weight loss and dieting. 

We may be able to track and limit calories for a while.  But eventually, we all eat until we feel satisfied.  As you will learn, not all foods are created equal when it comes to satiety.  

We’ve been on a five-year mission to quantify satiety to empower people to make better food choices that allow them to eat fewer calories with less hunger. 

This article showcases the results of our latest analysis and details the development of our new satiety index.  

It also includes a list of the highest and lowest satiety index foods for you to try (or avoid). 

But First, What Is Satiety?

Satiety is simply the sensation of fullness you feel after eating. 

A satiating food or meal leaves you feeling satisfied for longer, with fewer calories.  

Satiety vs Satiation

Before diving in, it’s important to understand the difference between satiety and satiation.

  • Satiation occurs when we feel full after eating and no longer want to eat in the short term.  So, while some bulky, high-volume, low-energy-density foods might make you feel ‘stuffed’ in the short term, you’ll likely seek out more food before too long. 
  • In contrast, satiety refers to how full we feel over the longer term and occurs when we obtain enough of all the essential nutrients we require.  People who eat more satiating foods feel fuller for longer and can trust their appetite to guide them when they need more nutrients and fuel. 

High Satiety Index Foods

We recently updated our satiety index analysis to determine which foods promote satiety. 

Our research is based on our unique dataset of 125,761 days of food logs that we collected from 34,519 Nutrient Optimiser users over the past four years. 

These data include both macronutrients and micronutrients, which enables us to determine the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals critical for satiety.     

Later in this article, we’ll explain the analysis behind our updated satiety index of foods. 

But for now, you’re most likely reading this to know what to eat and avoid for greater satiety

So, let’s get straight to the point!

What Are the Most Satiating Foods?

The tables below show how the most popular plant foods, seafood, animal-based foods, and fats rank from highest to lowest satiety score. 

To increase your satiety, swap foods with lower satiety scores for foods with higher scores. 

Plant-Based Foods

Plant-based foods encompass vegetables, fruits, grains, seeds, nuts, beans, and legumes.  But as you will see in the ranking below, they’re not all created equal from a satiety perspective. 

Because vegetables tend to have the least amount of calories per gram compared to other plant-based foods, nutrient-dense foods like watercress, broccoli, and asparagus will fill you with fewer calories. 

FoodSatiety Score
watercress100%
broccoli71%
asparagus71%
parsley63%
kale63%
spinach62%
arugula (rocket)61%
cauliflower60%
lettuce58%
zucchini57%
coriander (cilantro)50%
sauerkraut49%
cabbage47%
cucumber41%
bell pepper41%
mushrooms41%
Brussels sprouts39%
garlic37%
onion33%
green beans33%
peanuts33%
celery33%
potato32%
almonds32%
oranges30%
radishes30%
raspberries30%
flaxseeds29%
dill pickle28%
sour pickle28%
kiwifruit28%
pumpkin seeds28%
avocado25%
lemon juice24%
daikon23%
beets22%
sunflower seeds21%
blackberries21%
cashews21%
grapes20%
oatmeal19%
Brazil nuts19%
walnuts18%
carrots18%
filberts (hazelnuts)15%
apples14%
pecans13%
guacamole12%
white rice11%
macadamia nuts9%
dried coconut9%
olives9%
blueberries9%
banana8%

With that said, your stomach has a finite capacity.  There is a limit to how much of these foods you can eat before you explode! 

Not everyone loves their veggies either.  So, once you’ve had your fill of these foods, you can move on to the other foods listed below. 

It’s also worth noting that if your blood glucose levels are dysregulated, many lower-satiety plant-based foods towards the bottom of this table may not be ideal for you. 

For more info on finding your ideal carb intake, see Carbohydrates – The Optimal vs Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR).

Seafood

Because it has plenty of protein and a higher nutrient density, seafood tends to be satisfying.  It also provides more energy to get you through the day than the non-starchy veggies listed above. 

FoodSatiety Score
salmon88%
shrimp85%
mackerel75%
tuna72%
sardines66%

Animal-Based

Next, we have animal-based foods like meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.  Bodybuilders often use high-protein, low-fat foods like egg whites, low-fat cottage cheese, skinless chicken breast, and lean beef (listed towards the top) to lean out quickly. 

Foodsatiety score
egg white95%
liver88%
cottage cheese (low-fat)88%
chicken thigh73%
sirloin steak (fat not eaten)73%
chicken drumstick72%
chicken breast (no skin)71%
milk (low-fat)66%
whole egg60%
ground beef (85% lean)58%
sirloin steak (fat eaten)57%
Parmesan cheese45%
brie43%
ground beef (80% lean)42%
gouda40%
Mozzarella cheese38%
yogurt (whole milk)35%
feta35%
kefir 35%
cheddar cheese33%
bacon22%

To identify your ideal protein intake, see Protein – Optimal vs Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)

Fats

Finally, we have higher-fat foods.  Foods with more fat tend to be lower in protein and nutrients, which makes them less satiating. 

FoodSatiety Score
sour cream9%
mayonnaise3%
butter3%
olive oil0%
coconut oil0%
avocado oil0%
lard0%
MCT oil0%

Many people find lower-carb diets provide greater satiety, but this is likely due to the higher protein intake rather than the extra fat. 

If your goal is fat loss, you likely don’t need to add extra dietary fat because you’re getting enough of it from high-protein animal foods.  For more on finding your ideal fat intake, see Fat – Optimal vs Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR).

Nutrient Density of High Satiety Index Foods

The chart below shows the micronutrient fingerprint of foods with the highest satiety index score.  Because micronutrients are part of the satiety index equation, high satiety index foods tend to be more nutrient dense. 

We know from our satiety analysis that protein and the amino acids that make it up are the #1 most critical nutrient for satiety.  It’s worth pointing out that these foods’ protein percentage, or the per cent of total calories from protein, is very high (67%). 

The following chart shows a micronutrient fingerprint of foods with the maximum nutrient density.  Because we put equal emphasis on all of the micronutrients, we see a higher nutrient score and a more palatable protein level (45%). 

Unless you’re in the final weeks of prepping for a bodybuilding show and need to lean out fast, most people would benefit from adding more of these nutrient-dense foods instead of maxing out satiety or the protein:energy ratio.  Instead, thinking in terms of nutrients vs energy (from fat and carbs) tends to be more helpful.    

Nutrients-vs-Energy Charts

While nutrient density and satiety are related, most people will benefit most from focussing on getting more of all the essential nutrients per calorie.  To show you what this looks like, the chart below illustrates where various foods sit on the nutrients-vs-energy landscape. 

All Foods

Plants

Meat and Eggs

Dairy

Seafood

For more detail on these nutrient-dense foods, check out The Most Nutrient Dense Foods – Tailored to Your Goals and Preferences.  Alternatively, you can access our full suite of food lists ranked for different goals here

If you’re interested in learning more about the details behind how we created our new satiety index ranking, read on.  

The Satiety Index

Our original research into which foods are satiating started with the 1995 paper A Satiety Index of Common Foods

Researchers at the University of Sydney fed participants 1000 kilojoules (239 calories) each of 38 foods.  They then measured their perceived hunger every fifteen minutes for three hours, and they quantified the amount of food they ate at a buffet three hours later to determine how full they stayed. 

The results from this study are shown in the Satiety Index chart below.  White bread was given a score of 100%.  Foods with a score higher than 100% are more satiating than white bread per calorie, and vice versa.

Are Potatoes The Most Satiating Food? 

The cooked and cooled plain potato, full of resistant starch, with no salt or added fat, achieved the highest satiety score. 

Many people have successfully lost weight on the potato hack diet because they are bland and have a low energy density.  You probably would become bored of eating if all you had to eat was potatoes for a week or more.  However, you may lose more muscle than fat with a diet that offers only 8% protein. 

In an associated paper, using the Satiety Index study data, Susanna Holt and her team also noted that high-carb foods that raise insulin and blood glucose quickly have a more significant short-term impact on satiety. 

However, in retrospect, given that the researchers were studying feelings of fullness during over three hours, their study would have been more appropriately titled A Satiation Index of Common Foods rather than satiety, which is a longer-term phenomenon. 

High-starch foods that raise blood glucose and insulin quickly often only lead to short-term satiation but not long-term satiety

Your appetite quickly shuts down until you have cleared the extra glucose from your blood.  But once your blood glucose comes crashing down, you’re much more likely to be ravenously hungry, eat again sooner and make poorer food choices at your next meal. 

What Foods Are The Least Satiating? 

Unsurprisingly, croissants, cakes, and doughnuts achieved the lowest satiety index scores.  I’m sure you know how easy these foods are to overeat!   

Satiety Index of Foods List

The complete list of foods tested is shown in the table below.  In addition, we’ve included their respective satiety index scores from the study. 

FoodSatiety Index Score (%)
croissant47
cake65
doughnut68
Mars bar70
peanuts84
yoghurt88
chips91
ice cream96
white bread100
muesli100
Kellog’s Sustain112
French fries116
banana118
jelly beans118
cornflakes118
Special K118
cookies120
crackers127
brown rice132
Honey Smacks132
lentils133
white rice138
cheese146
egg150
All-Bran151
popcorn154
grainy bread154
wholemeal bread157
grapes162
baked beans168
beef steak176
white pasta188
brown pasta188
apples197
oranges202
porridge209
ling fish225
potatoes323

Shortcomings of the Satiety Index of Foods

Unfortunately, in addition to only considering the response to foods over three hours, the 1995 Satiety Index Study only contained 38 data points and is therefore hard to make much sense of or apply to other foods. 

However, we began understanding why these foods were so satiating with our 2018 data analysis.  We also saw similar trends when we analysed half a million days of MyFitnessPal data.  Both analyses showed that foods with a higher protein % and more fibre tended to be more satiating. 

Our analysis also showed that foods that combined energy from fat and carbs tended to be the easiest to overeat. 

Given how crucial satiety is to nutrition and weight loss, it’s surprising that no further studies have been done on this topic in the past twenty-five years.  However, while Kellogg’s funded the original research, it’s probably no shock that food companies don’t want to compare their products to the most satiating whole foods listed above! 

Macronutrients and Satiety

As the database from our Optimisers has grown, we have gained a more precise understanding of the numerous factors in food that influence how much we eat. 

We’ve now had 2,899 Optimisers participate in our Macros Masterclass, Micros Masterclass, and many others complete the 7-Day Nutrient Clarity Challenge.  We now have an average of eighteen days of data from nearly thirty-five thousand people worldwide who eat vastly variable diets.

To help you understand the relationship between macronutrients and satiety, the chart below shows how a lower calorie intake aligns with less energy from fat and non-fibre carbohydrates and a higher protein % and more fibre. 

This observation aligns with the protein leverage hypothesis, which states that we continue to eat until we get enough protein.   

The macronutrient profile of your food (or the protein, fats, and carbs that make it up) undoubtedly has the most significant impact on how much you’ll eat.  However, as you’ll see, it doesn’t stop! 

Our data from Optimisers are based on daily recorded calorie intake rather than a subjective feeling of fullness described three hours after a single meal.  This allows us to understand true satiety across the entire day instead of just short-term satiation

Because most people don’t change the type of food they eat, our data also provide a deeper understanding of the eating patterns that align with eating less or more than we need to. 

Micronutrients and Satiety

As we dug deeper into the data, we found that many essential micronutrients also play a role in satisfying our cravings with less energy. 

As well as amino acids, it appears that we crave a certain amount of all the essential vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids in something we like to term the nutrient leverage effect

Instead of just eating more until we get the protein we require, we also keep eating until we get enough of the essential nutrients, regardless of whether we’ve consumed more energy than we need.

While the research in this area is sparse, the recent study Micronutrients and food choice: A case of ‘nutritional wisdom’ in humans? also showed that humans prefer foods that contain more of the nutrients we require. 

Which Nutrients Align with Eating Less? 

The table below lists the satiety response to various nutrients.  The ‘satiety benefit’ refers to the difference in calorie consumption we see when we move from low to high intakes of these nutrients, increasing our nutrient density.  

NutrientSatiety Benefit
protein (%)55%
potassium (g/cal)49%
cholesterol (%)33%
folate (mg/cal)33%
calcium (g/cal)33%
niacin (B3) (g/cal)32%
vitamin B5 (g/cal)28%
riboflavin (B2) (g/cal)28%
iron (g/cal)28%
selenium (g/cal)26%
sodium (g/cal)24%
vitamin A (g/cal)23%
magnesium (g/cal)22%
fibre:carb ratio21%
vitamin B6 (g/cal)20%
energy density20%
vitamin K1 (g/cal)19%
thiamine B1 (g/cal)17%
vitamin E (g/cal)17%
fibre16%
manganese15%
vitamin C (g/cal)14%
zinc (g/cal)13%
omega 3 (g/cal)11%
vitamin B12 (g/cal)9%
copper (g/cal)8%

Which Nutrients Have a Statistically Significant Impact on Satiety? 

As you can see, many nutrients influence whether we eat less or more.  However, each nutrient’s satiety effect is not independent!  These nutrients are often found in foods alongside one another.  

If you summed the right-hand column in this table, you would get a nonsensical 614% reduction in energy.  Therefore, identifying the nutrients that have a statistically significant effect once all other nutrients are considered together is critical. 

To understand which micronutrients have the most statistically significant effect on how much we eat, we ran a multivariate regression analysis to identify the parameters that align with eating fewer calories. 

We’ve listed the results in the table below, which narrowed it down to the six significant parameters:

Nutrient Units15th85thCalories%
protein%19%41%-419-25.7%
potassiummg/2000 cal21825170-115-7.1%
sodium mg/2000 cal14734557-53-3.2%
vitamin B2 mg/2000 cal1.54.1-34-2.1%
fibre:carb0.130.42-29-1.8%
calcium mg/2000 cal4941649-29-1.8%

It’s worth noting that:

  • All p-values were very low. Showing that the relationship between calorie intake and these micronutrients is not due to chance
  • The calories column shows the (average) reduction in total calories that results from moving from what we consider low (15th percentile) to high amounts (85th percentile) of each nutrient. 
  • The % column shows the potential calorie reduction that aligns with moving from low to high intakes of that nutrient. 

A 25.7% reduction in calories is attributable to protein alone (i.e., all the essential amino acids together).  However, an extra 15.9% satiety benefit is cumulatively attributable to potassium, sodium, vitamin B2, calcium, and the fibre:carb ratio. 

This data analysis shows that the other micronutrients that often accompany protein work synergistically to satisfy our cravings for fewer calories. 

What About the Other Nutrients? 

The multivariate analysis identifies the micronutrients with the most statistically significant impact on satiety and weeds out the rest.  However, that doesn’t mean the others aren’t also important!  It’s just that in this population, these 34,519 people crave this handful of nutrients the most. 

The lack of statistical significance of the other nutrients may be because these people may already be getting enough of those other nutrients.   Additionally, the data for some nutrients can be noisy because of the use of supplements and fortified foods.  Hence, some of the micronutrients found readily in supplements, or fortified foods have a lower degree of statistical significance. 

To identify the micronutrients that you need to prioritise, and the foods and meals that contain them, you can make use of our free 7-Day Nutrient Clarity Challenge.

Can You Get Too Much of a Good Thing? 

As with many things in nutrition, more is not necessarily better. 

There is an upper limit to how much benefit each nutrient provides.  Our cravings drive us to keep eating until we get enough of our current highest-priority nutrients before searching for other critical nutrients we need more of. 

Using our analysis, we developed our Optimal Nutrient Intakes (ONIs) to determine the quantity of each nutrient from whole foods (i.e., without supplements) that optimises our satiety.  

The table below shows that the ONIs are often significantly more than the minimum Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Adequate Intakes (AIs).  This makes sense, given that the AIs and the EARs were initially set to create rations to help WWII soldiers to evade disease! 

The EAR and AI are the minimum intakes of nutrients observed to prevent diseases of deficiency in most of the population most of the time.  The DRIs were developed using the EARs and represent the intake of nutrients that is adequate for 97.5% of the population.  In other words, these are not the intakes of nutrients associated with optimal health and satiety! 

nutrientONIDRI or AIUnits
calcium16501000mg
iron3018mg
magnesium825320mg
phosphorus1250700mg
potassium60002600mg
sodium40001500mg
zinc258.0mg
copper30.9mg
manganese5.51.8mg
selenium30055mcg
vitamin A100002333IU
vitamin E2515mg
vitamin D1200600IU
vitamin C35075mg
thiamine (B1)31.1mg
riboflavin (B2)61.1mg
niacin (B3)6014mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)125mg
vitamin (B6)51.3mg
vitamin (B12)122.4mcg
vitamin K1110090mcg
folate1000400mcg
tryptophan2.2g
threonine8.1g
isoleucine8.8g
leucine15.2g
lysine15.2g
methionine4.8g
cysteine2.40.9g
phenylalanine7.91.6g
tyrosine6.61.6g
valine9.82.3g
histidine5.41.4g
omega 361.1g

Our ONIs are an added component to our new satiety index; we have used them to ensure that too much weight wasn’t given to one nutrient. 

Similar to our Diet Quality Score, our ONIs ensure that no further benefit is counted after you reach the Optimal Nutrient Intake for that nutrient.   

The Satiety Response to Key Nutrients

To help you understand the inner workings of our satiety index a little more, we’ve provided the relevant satiety charts for each nutrient included in the satiety index ranking.  

Protein

The chart below shows the average satiety response to protein %.  We tend to eat fewer calories overall when we consume foods with a greater protein %, and moving from very low to very high protein % aligns with a substantial 55% reduction in calorie intake!  It is tough to overeat foods with less energy from fat and carbs when we focus on getting the protein we require.  

When we run the regression analysis of just protein, we see a 32% reduction in total calories as we move from low (19%) to high protein (41%).  However, we see a smaller 25.7% satiety response when we account for the satiety effect of other nutrients separately. 

While many are tempted to jump to extremes, we find that 40% of total calories from protein is a healthy stretch target to work towards.  In our four-week Macros Masterclass, our Optimisers do just this by dialling up their protein and fibre while dialling back on fat and carbs.  This allows them to lose fat sustainably without the rebound bingeing that often accompanies diving head first into a diet.  

For more detail on the perils of swinging to extreme protein intakes, see Secrets of the Nutrient-Dense Protein Sparing Modified Fast.

Protein tends to be a contentious macronutrient, and many people are confused over whether they should aim for high vs low protein.  But in reality, most people are already close to the right amount of protein.  They’re likely just overconsuming energy from fat and carbohydrates in pursuit of the protein they require.  

For more details, see Protein – Optimal vs Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR).

Potassium

As with protein, we see a substantial satiety response to foods containing more potassium

Once we account for the impact of the other nutrients, we see a 7.1% reduction in calories when we move from low to high potassium!  This is not surprising, as potassium has been deemed a nutrient of concern, and most people are known not to get enough. 

Sodium

Sodium is another mineral we crave intensely.  This is partly why it’s added to junk food: so, we eat more and more!  But many people find they don’t get enough sodium once they clean up their diet and reduce processed foods.  

We’ve set a stretch target of 4,000 mg/2000 calories based on our analysis.  Once we account for other nutrients, moving from low to high sodium aligns with a 3.2% reduction in calories. 

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

Vitamin B2, or riboflavin, also elicits a similarly substantial satiety response.  Interestingly, any benefit from vitamins quickly falls off once we exceed higher levels that can only be achieved through supplementation or fortification.  

It’s important to remember that the satiety benefit we see comes from foods containing these nutrients; you do not get the same effect from taking a multivitamin as ‘insurance’ and continuing to eat ‘fortified’ junk! 

We set our Optimal Nutrient Intake (ONI) for riboflavin at 5 mg/2000 calories.  Once we account for the impact of the other nutrients, vitamin B2 provides a 2.1% reduction in calories when we move from low to high. 

Fibre:Carb Ratio

While foods with more fibre tend to be harder to overeat, we see the greatest statistically significant response to a higher fibre:carbohydrate ratio.  In other words, simply eating more fibre on its own, or even fibre supplements, does not guarantee satiety.  Instead, eating a high proportion of fibre in relation to carbs optimises how full we feel over the long term.

When up to about 40% of our carbohydrates are fibrous, we tend to eat less overall.  The left side of this chart represents most people who eat more refined carbohydrates with less fibre that are easier to overeat.  Moving from a low to a high fibre:carb ratio aligns with a 1.8% reduction in total calories once other nutrients are also considered. 

Calcium

Lastly, we see a strong satiety response to calcium in our food

While the benefits of calcium seem boundless, we set our ONI target at 1650 mg/2000 calories because it’s hard to get more from food while also getting other nutrients. 

Once we consider other nutrients, we see a 1.8% reduction in calories in the multivariate regression analysis.

Will Low-Energy-Density Foods Help Me Eat Less? 

Before we wrap up, let’s touch on energy density. 

Many believe that high-volume foods with a low energy density are more satiating.   

Professor Barbara Rolls’s Ultimate Volumetrics Diet is also based on this concept. 

Foods with higher energy densities tend to be harder to overeat, but only to a point.  On the other side of the extreme, a big bottle of water or a few heads of lettuce won’t keep you full for long.   

Once we consider protein, the fibre:carb ratio, and the statistically significant nutrients, we end up with a relatively less energy-dense diet without going to ridiculous extremes.  Our multivariate regression analysis found that energy density did not significantly lower our overall daily energy intake.  Worrying about energy density will worsen your satiety if you already have the other parameters in place. 

For more details, see Low Energy Density Foods and Recipes: Will They Help You Feel Full with Fewer Calories?

Next Steps

We hope this article has helped you understand how various nutrients in food promote satiety and satisfy your cravings with fewer calories. 

More

 

2 thoughts on “High Satiety Index Foods:  Which Ones Will Keep You Full With Fewer Calories?”

  1. interesting, I have been tailoring my diet these past 3 plus months to higher satiey foods and carbs with protein and fiber (like beans) salads sometimes I get tired of eating salads sometimes, but I have found other ways to use veggies, so when I want cereal I make sure the caloires are modest adn fiber is high and it still has a little sweetness frm say raisins for example, and eat only one serving. I use lower carbs fruits when I can such as blueberries and strawberries eat a half of banana with a meal when i want it, which latly has not be often. your really did alot of work onthis post. I hope alot of people see it and consider it in their food choices to fight obesity and all the other healht problems caused by malnorishment

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