Tag Archives: Robb wolf

Wired to Eat by Robb Wolf (review) and the seven day carb test

Robb Wolf’s has been a major influence on my thinking and learning in the area of nutrition.

Around 2009, my dad mentioned that he’d been reading the transcripts for the Paleo Solution Podcast.  I think Robb’s podcast with Andy Deas and then Greg Everett was the first podcast I listened to.  I would like to think I was their sixth listener, but I could be wrong.

image11

Robb is a research biochemist with some personal health challenges.  His mum had some major autoimmune issues and he’s been plagued with ulcerative colitis and the threat of a bowel resection in his mid-20s.  He started the first and fourth CrossFit affiliate gyms.  All this gives him a unique angle on health and nutrition.  His 2010 book, The Paleo Solution, has become a definitive manuscript of both the Paleo and CrossFit communities and central to the massive growth of both.

image02

Although there is sometimes disagreement between the Paleo and Low Carb communities, Robb has, from the outset, had a soft spot for low carb, keto, and fasting.  It was through Robb that I learned about Dr Richard Bernstein and low carb to try to manage my wife Monica’s Type 1 Diabetes.  He’s also been interested in the use of ketogenic diets for traumatic brain injury in his work with police, firefighters and military. [1]

When I came across the insulin index data which highlights food that provoke a low insulin response but do not contain a lot of vitamins and minerals, it was Robb Wolf and Mat Lalonde’s thinking on nutrient density that made me believe there might be a way to combine the two parameters, insulin load and nutrient density, to find the right balance for each individual.

What’s new different in Wired to Eat?

So how have Robb’s views changed in the last seven years since he wrote The Paleo Solution?

On a personal level, it seems he’s occasionally eating gelato with his two girls.  With a few more years under his belt, Robb seems more conscious of his genetic diabetes risk.  He is on a journey to find the optimal balance between low carb and strategic carb cycling to maximise mental and physical performance.  A lot of that self-reflection and thinking is echoed in his new book, Wired to Eat, which was released in March 2017.  The 7 day carb test is a great addition to his paleo formula to help people decide if they do well with more of less carbs.

image09

Robb has spent less time dealing with performance athletes and more time dealing with police and firefighters who are often metabolically broken.  This makes his new message even more relevant to the masses, who are more likely to be facing the challenges of diabesity rather than winning the CrossFit Games.

In his latest book, Wired to Eat, Robb has differentiated the ‘Paleo template’ depending on an individual’s carb tolerance.  The 7 Day Carb Test protocol will help you assess whether you can tolerate Paleo-style carbs such as beets, squash, yams, and sweet potatoes.

personalised nutrition

“Personalised Nutrition” is a central theme of Robb’s new book.  In Chapter 6, Robb delves into the Israeli study “Personalised Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses,”[2] in which they correlated blood glucose with gut microbiome parameters and identified optimal foods to rehabilitate the gut.

While still in its early days, eating to re-balance the gut microbiome is certainly a fascinating area of research.  With his personal and professional background, Robb brings a new angle to the discussion.

The great thing about the Paleo template is that is that it eliminates most of the nutrient poor foods that will spike your blood glucose and insulin levels as well as nutrient poor processed grains and sugars.

Nutrient dense whole foods and the healthy dose of cellular carbohydrates also tend to feed a broad range of ‘good bacteria’ rather than the narrow band of pathogenic bacteria that can be fed by processed carbs and simple sugars.[3]  In the book, Robb tries to strike a balance between accessible mass market books and driving the science forward with novel and obscure discussions.  While he could ‘nerd out’ and ‘go down the rabbit hole’ he could makes sure that his discussion and recommendations are simple enough to not lose people who are not steeped in evolutionary biology or nutrition science.

But is it Paleo?

An overly simplistic view of the Paleo diet led to a mindless process of asking “Is this food Paleo?” versus the more appropriate question “Is this food a good option for me?”

On the other hand, if the details on how the diet works starts to look like Advanced Chemistry, a typical reader would rather roll around naked in broken glass.  I will aim to strike a balance between the two extremes, giving you sufficient information in a simple way so you understand how these choices will help you live a healthier life.

The overarching theme of the book is that we are Wired to Eat to ensure survival of the species.  Wanting a donut is not a moral failing that you should feel guilty for.  From an ancestral perspective, it’s just how we’re programmed to perpetuate the survival of the species.  Robb continues:

If you live in a modern, Westernized society of relative leisure and abundance but are not fat, sick and diabetic, you are, from a biological perspective, “screwing up.”   

Our species is here today because our genes are wired to eat damn near everything that is not nailed down.  Related to this is an expectation, again woven into our genes, that the process of finding food requires that we are active.

In unambiguous terms, we are genetically wired to eat simple, unprocessed foods, and to expend a fair amount of energy in the process (walk, run, lift, carry, dance).

But modern life affords us the luxury of sedentary and the most varied assortment of delectable food imaginable.  It is now possible to order food to your door, work from home, and sit when we travel, while our not so distant ancestors routinely walked 5 to 10 miles per day.  This is our conundrum.

The reason we get fat, sick, and broken, and the reason why it’s so hard to change our diet and lifestyle, is simple:  our environment has changed while our bodies have not – at least not enough to forestall the development of a host of degenerative disease.  Our genetics are wired for a time when our meals were relatively simple in terms of flavour and texture.  We only had access to foods that changed with the seasons and we always had to expend some amount of energy to get the goods.

Robb draws the parallel between processed and manufactured “food porn” and, well, real porn.

Once we become over exposed to things that are impossible to achieve naturally (whether that be Doritos[4]

image01

…49 chemically generated flavours of jelly beans…

image10

…effortless ketones in a packet…

max.jpg

…or having fifty browser tabs open of surgically enhanced people performing superhuman feats of “intimacy”)…

censored

…we lose taste for and become desensitised to the real things that can be found in nature.

The modern environment stimulates the senses while delivering nothing

The problem with the surreal world we live in comes when the Doritos or the Jelly Beans don’t deliver the nutrition that their chemically induced flavours promise, or when the surgically enhanced people and ‘social media’ don’t deliver the relationship, intimacy, and meaning that we’re really craving and adapted to thrive on.

image07

Aside from food quality, Robb also addresses the mismatch between what our species are adapted to when it comes to movement, relationships, light, and sleep.

Studies have indicated that inadequate social connectivity increases early death potential as much as a pack-a-day smoking habit.

image04

Although Rob is pro low carb for the right application, he’s also pragmatic about it.  After being a low carb zealot and breaking a number of CrossFit clients, he understands that low carb isn’t optimal for everyone.

For some, a higher fat intake, particularly with adequate protein, causes a spontaneous reduction in calorie intake due to a profound sense of satiety.  Folks who eat this way tend to experience fairly easy fat loss and dramatic improvements in health parameters such as blood sugar and inflammation.

Keep in mind, however that this might have nothing to do with the satiety of fat specifically and everything to do with removing junk carbs from the diet, which can hijack the neuro-regulation of appetite and make us feel hungry.

Some folks who really buy into the insulin hypothesis of obesity say that with elevated insulin levels we cannot get fats out of cells.  Elevated insulin levels certainly play into the ease of liberating fat from adipocytes; this is why insulin sensitive people can lose body fat on relatively high-carb, low-fat diet.

Conversely, however, folks with insulin resistance will find the high-carb, low – fat approach almost impossible to lose weight on, but may thrive on a lower – carb, higher protein / fat mix.  Once the underlying resistance has been addressed, these people may find they tolerate more carbs and can shift their diet accordingly but this is a highly individual thing.

Coming from a physical performance and diabetes headspace, Robb has a good grasp on the importance of muscle mass, blood glucose control, activity, and endocrinology.

The brain becomes leptin resistant and the muscles become insulin resistant.  This fools the brain and the liver into believing we are starving.  So, despite being awash in excess calories, the body releases glucagon, cortisol, and adrenaline, behaving as if would it we were in an underfed or starvation state.

The release of these catabolic hormones leads to a host of problems, not the least of which is muscle and bone wasting.  This occurs in anyone with insulin resistance (estimates range as high as 50 percent of the US population) and particularly for diabetics.  What’s worse, when you lose muscle mass, you have even fewer places to store glucose, which further exacerbates the problem of excess glucose storage.

High insulin levels downregulate insulin receptors, which increases insulin resistance and puts more and more stress on the pancreas.  This is the race toward uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, accelerated aging, increased rates of cancer, neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease and kidney failure.

Having higher levels of functional muscle mass means we don’t have to rely as heavily on our pancreas producing insulin.

The spread in macronutrients appears to have little if any impact on health as long as the foods are largely unprocessed and the carbohydrate comes mainly from fruits, vegetables and tubers.

Food quality should be the greatest priority for most people before they start worrying about micromanaging macronutrients.  Restriction of carbs should be one of the last lines of defence against high blood glucose levels after you’ve got the food quality, sleep, sunlight, stress, and relationship issues sorted.

If we restrict ourselves to nutrient dense, unprocessed foods that our ancestors would have recognised as food most of us won’t need to worry so much about macronutrients.  If we limit our exposure to modern engineered foods we can pretty much eat whatever we desire, letting our appetite and cravings lead us to the nutrients we need.

From a scientific perspective, this nutrient density topic is actually the most credible argument for the Paleo diet; it arrives at this position not from anthropological observations, but rather from the best that reductionist science has to offer.

But if you couldn’t be bothered with abstract concepts like nutrient density that require some faith in number crunching by geeks like me, just ask yourself, “Would my ancestors recognise this as food?“ or “Is it Paleo?”

Armed with the insights of Dr Kirk Parsley, Robb spends a chapter talking about the importance of sleep and light exposure on our hormones.  Just drugging yourself with sedatives or alcohol doesn’t bring sleep but rather just a lack of consciousness.  You need to manage your light exposure (more during the day, less at night) to make sure you get real quality sleep.

One of Robb’s major goals of the book is to blitz the morality and guilt that surround food.  So often we think that our lack of physical awesomeness is due to our lack of willpower or moral failures.  The reality is that it’s not entirely our fault.  We are programmed to binge on that bag of Doritos, Snickers, cheesecake, or the Jellybeans if we’re left alone with them.

image05

This biological love of simple sugars allowed our ancestors to make it through the impending winter and become our ancestors.  Problem is, these days, winter never comes.[5]

image03

Now we’re surrounded by summer foods (fruit, jelly beans, and fairy floss) and summer (blue) light.  We never have to go through the discomfort of winter (fasting), relying on less sugar (low carb), and perhaps our body’s fat stores (ketosis).

image08

So, what’s the new Paleo Solution in Wired to Eat?  The first step is to figure out where you’re at so you can manipulate your environment to push you back the other way towards optimal.  This is the essence of Personalised Nutrition that is central to the book.

The key factor is to understand when it comes to low carb and blood sugars i that if exceeded your liver’s ability to process and store sugar we need to give it a break for a while.  Meanwhile if you’re insulin sensitive, you may benefit more from tweaking your diet towards more whole, unprocessed carbs and less fat.

Maybe Wired to Eat will bring some low carb to Paleo and nutrient dense Paleo foods to low carb?  A match made in heaven?

reverse engineering Optimal Foraging Theory

A while back, after hearing Robb discuss Optimal Foraging Theory, I wrote the blog post, Energy Density, Food Hyper Palatability and Reverse Engineering Optimal Foraging Theory, to combine my nutritional analysis with Rob’s insights.

The table below and the accompanying food lists are my attempt to identify the optimal (most nutrient dense) whole foods that will suit different people with different starting points and different goals.  Rob takes a similar, if maybe simpler approach in his book.  He is conscious of not over complicating things.

approach average glucose waist : height
(mg/dL) (mmol/L)
therapeutic ketosis > 140 > 7.8
diabetes and nutritional ketosis 108 to 140 6.0 to 7.8
weight loss (insulin resistant) 100 to 108 5.4 to 6.0 > 0.5
weight loss (insulin sensitive) < 97 < 5.4 > 0.5
bulking < 97 < 5.4 < 0.5
nutrient dense maintenance < 97 < 5.4 < 0.5

It’s not primarily about self-discipline, guilt, calorie counting, or a one-size-fits-all dietary approach.  Personalised nutrition is about understanding where you are now and where you want to be.  You then need to actively “deprive yourself” of the foods that you are no match for and surround yourself with the environment that will help you reach your goals.

Resistance is useless when you’re surrounded by “food porn” but you’re Wired to Eat.

image00

post updated May 2017

references

[1] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPXAyYZEpEk

[2] http://www.cell.com/abstract/S0092-8674(15)01481-6

[3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402009/

[4] http://www.simonandschuster.com.au/books/The-Dorito-Effect/Mark-Schatzker/9781476724232

[5] http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/met.2014.0027

Advertisements

beef heart chili

This Beef Heart Chili recipe is by Kathleen Guertin from Robb Wolf’s website.  It ranks really well in the weight loss and athletic / metabolically healthy meal rankings due to it’s high nutrient density and low calorie density.

Organ meats top the list when it comes to nutrient density, however I haven’t found a lot of recipes using organ meats that rank really well.  Perhaps it’s because people feel they need to put a lot of not so healthy things with their organ meats to drown out the taste?

This recipe uses heart, ground beef along with a range of spices to build a solid nutritional profile.

If you look closely at the chart below you’ll see that I’ve used pork heart as there is no data for beef heart in the NutritionSELF database.

Robb has had a massive influence on my thinking, along with many others. I like the way he brings everything back to evolutionary principles that need to make sense in the broader context rather than just looking at isolated studies.  I also like the way he promotes quantifying nutritional density as a way to beat the nutritionists at their own game.

Robb believes that Mat Lalonde’s nutritional density work will show the nutritionists that Paleo is better than the recommended western diet using their own system!

I’m hoping that nutritional density combined with the insulin index component will take things one step further to provide a quantitative basis to demonstrate that one meal is better than another.

Chrome Legacy Window 27042015 71258 AM.bmp

The details for a 500 calorie serving (the recipe is for two servings) are shown below.  This recipe does really well on the weight loss ranking because it has a low calorie density and a solid, great nutrient levels and a solid amount of fibre.

net carbs

insulin load carb insulin fat protein fibre
20g 40g 50% 49% 28%

9g

If you are insulin resistant or are sensitive to tomatoes you may want to reduce the tomatoes.  I’ve re-run the numbers with 5 ounces of tomatoes rather than the 26 ounces in the original recipe.  Still not perfectly diabetic friendly, but an improvement and slightly closer to the Bernstein target of 12g carbohydrates per meal.

net carbs

insulin load carb insulin fat protein fibre
15g 36g 42% 53% 30%

6g

Nutrition for athletes and the metabolically healthy

  • Most people, once fat adapted, will do fine on a high fat ketogenic diet  and not need additional carbs to be able to exercise.
  • Learning to be metabolically flexible (i.e. using both fat and carbohydrates for fuel) can be a major advantage for an athlete.
  • Athletes and may benefit from increasing carbohydrates around competitions to speed recovery and replenish glycogen stores.
  • This article highlights some nutrient dense food options that contain slightly more carbohydrates to support intense exercise.

more about me

I became interested in the concept of low carbohydrate fuelling strategies when I started commuting to work on my bike.

The first problem is that I live 30km (18 miles) from work, but still chose to ride, both ways, in an effort to get fit and lose weight.

The second problem was that when I got home after riding 60km I just wanted to eat until I stopped feeling hungry.

The third problem was that when I weighed myself, in spite of the massive amounts of exercise that I was doing, the scale wasn’t moving in the direction that I wanted it to!

I had heard that athletes such as Ben Greenfield [1], Tim Olsen [2], Zach Bitter [3] and Sami Inkinen [4] were blowing away records using a restricted carbohydrate approach.  I wanted to be just like them.  Even a little bit.

low carb versus high carb for endurance

Typical preparation for endurance events involves “carbing up” with large doses of pasta before an event and precise timing of added simple carbs such as gels during the event to keep the glycogen fuel tank full.

One of the challenges for endurance athletes is staying fuelled without gut issues from constant ingestions of sugar gels and sports drinks.

The often used analogy is that being an athlete on a high carbohydrate diets is like being a fuel tanker constantly having to stop at the gas station to fill up. [5]

The advantage to using a ketogenic fuelling approach is that we train our bodies to be “metabolically flexible” and able access our body fat in addition to the stored glycogen in our liver and muscles for fuel.

The results below show how someone who is metabolically flexible will obtain a larger proportion of their fuel from their body fat meaning and become less dependent on refuelling with carbohydrates.

image008

advantages of keeping carbs low for athletes

Aside from endurance performance, there are a number of reasons that you may want to control your control your carbohydrate intake if you’re an athlete:

  1. To help you get / stay lean. Keeping your power to weight ratio high is important so you don’t have to drag excess weight around the course.
  2. To reduce diabetes risk and all the associated issues. Keeping your blood sugars close to optimal for long term health should be seen as a greater goal than short term performance.
  3. To improve overall health and longevity due by decreasing inflammation, oxidation free radical damage.
  4. To improved energy stability and reduce gastrointestinal distress.

when is a ketogenic diet not a good idea?

Robb Wolf says that while he is a big fan of the ketogenic approach combined with intermittent fasting, the people that seem to do it are not the overweight sedentary office workers who might benefit the most from it, but rather the people doing intense workouts combined with intermittent fasting and burning themselves into the ground. [7]

There can also be some advantages in having your glycogen fuel tank full for explosive power in intense exercise.  Some people choose to “train low, race high”, meaning that during a race you can keep your glycogen stores reserved for intense burst efforts such as sprinting to the finish line. [8]

Minimising carbs most of the time and adding a few more for ‘game day’ can be a good strategy to maximise performance.

how much carbohydrate do you need?

Insulin is required to grow muscle (and store fat). [9]

Body builders use a protein shake or simple carbs to spike insulin and support muscle grown (anabolism) before or after a workout. [10] [11]  Some will even inject insulin before a workout to maximise muscle growth.

Programs such as the TKD or John Kiefer’s Carb Backloading [12] or Carb Nite [13] is designed for physique competitors wanting the benefits of ketogenic diet without burning themselves into the ground or stalling in the long term.  It should be noted though that this approach is not necessarily ketogenic or optimal for long term health.

Ben Greenfield recommends endurance athletes aim for a lower level of carbs most of the time (say 10%) but then increase carbohydrates to around 30% from real whole foods before and / or after demanding exercise.

Cerial Killers 2: Run on Fat [14] tells the story of Sami Inkinen working with Steve Phinney to refine his diet to 70% far, 20% protein, 10% carbs to undertaken the caloric equivalent of two marathons a day for fourth days to row between San Francisco and Hawaii, proving that you don’t need many carbs at all to undertake intense exercise. [15]

Keep in mind too that if weight loss is your goal then shorter bursts of intense exercise will raise your metabolism without leaving you wanting to eat everything in sight.  Extended cardio may leave you hungry to a point that you may just eat all the calories that you just burned, then some, particularly if you’re not yet fat adapted.

can you handle it?

This all needs to be taken in the context of keeping your blood sugars close as close to optimal as you can get them.  Even if you are lean and fit it is worth periodically checking your blood sugars.

If your blood sugars are drifting up then it might be time to take evasive action and prioritise your long term health over short term sports performance.

risk level HbA1c average blood sugar
 (%)  (mmol/L)  (mg/dL)
optimal 4.5 4.6 83
excellent < 5.0 < 5.4 < 97
good < 5.4 < 6.0 < 108
danger > 6.5 > 7.8 > 140

Professor Tim Noakes has stated that he believes that no athlete needs more than 200g of carbohydrates per day. [16]  Noakes himself, the author of the Bible of carbohydrate fuelling for endurance athletes, [17] switched to a low carb diet after realising that he had become a type 2 diabetic after years of following his own high carb fuelling strategies.

Similarly, Sami Ikenin [18] became a low carb advocate after realising that his high carb diet that he was following had led him to become diabetic.  After he switched to a restricted carb approach, he improved his triathlon performance and recently rowed from California to Hawaii on a 70% fat diet to raise awareness of the dangers of sugar. [19]

what should I eat?

Previously I showed how we can use the food ranking system [20] to prioritise foods for weight loss and diabetes.  We can also use the food ranking system to prioritise nutrient dense foods with a little more carbohydrates if blood sugar control is not such a concern.

This weighting system emphasises nutrient density per gram (40% weighting), and nutrient density per calorie (15%) with a lesser weighting towards the insulinogenic properties of the food (25%).

Cost is also a consideration given that an athlete might be consuming larger amounts of food than someone trying to lose weight.  The resultant food rankings are shown below.

ND / calorie fibre / calorie ND / $ ND / weight insulinogenic (%) calorie / 100g $ / calorie
15% 10% 10% 30% 20% 5% 10%

Rich Froning’s favourite peanut butter [21] rates well along with a wide range of nutrient dense nuts and seeds.

Vegetables, as always do well, with spinach and mushrooms at the top of the list.  Sweet potato scrapes in at the end of the vegetables as good nutrient dense high carb option.

A number of grain based foods such as rice and oats make the cut due to their nutrient density and low cost.  There’s been plenty of debate around the topic of ‘safe starches’ [22] however I think it depends on your context.  If you’re active and keeping your blood sugars under control then things like rice, and potatoes may be useful to speed recovery around intense exercise if you feel the need.

A number of breads make it into the list due to the fact that they are a low cost source of nutrition.  However many people will avoid these due to concerns over gluten leading to a leaky gut etc.

Organ meats, as always, ranks highly.  It’s interesting to note that bacon ranks as the first non-seafood meat.

There are also more fruit choices on this approach if you’re not worried about blood sugar.

nuts, seeds and legumes

  • peanut butter
  • sunflower seeds
  • peanuts
  • brazil nuts
  • pumpkin seeds
  • pistachio nuts
  • pecans
  • cashews
  • almonds
  • pine nuts
  • macadamia nuts
  • lentils
  • kidney beans
  • mung beans
  • chick peas
  • coconut meat

vegetables and spices

  • spinach
  • mushrooms
  • chives
  • coriander
  • chard
  • turnip greens
  • rosemary
  • spirulina
  • cinnamon
  • ginger
  • broccoli
  • lentils
  • Brussel sprouts
  • Kale
  • asparagus
  • Sweet potato

dairy and egg

  • egg yolk
  • whole egg
  • cheese
  • milk

animal products

  • organ meats (liver, heart, giblets)
  • sardine
  • oyster
  • anchovy
  • cod
  • herring
  • bacon
  • oyster
  • chorizo
  • mussel
  • trout
  • salmon
  • tuna
  • beef jerky
  • turkey
  • ground beef
  • lamb

fats and oils

  • olive oil
  • coconut oil
  • butter

fruit

  • avocado
  • olives
  • raspberries
  • blackberries
  • oranges
  • banana
  • dates
  • strawberries

grains

  • tortilla
  • oats
  • white bread
  • multi grain bread
  • croissants
  • oat bran muffins
  • rice

I’ve also developed this ‘cheat sheet’ using this approach to highlight optimal food choices depending, wither they be reducing insulin, weight loss or athletic performance.   Why not print it out and stick it to your fridge as a helpful reminder?

daily meal plan

An example daily meal plan using the highest ranking foods is shown below.  For breakfast we have bacon with spinach and eggs, a salad with tuna for lunch, salmon and veggies for dinner with nuts for snacks.

image029

This would give us a macronutrient break down of 25% carbs, 27% protein and 48% fat.   The other advantage of eating more carbohydrates is that we can increase our fibre even higher, with this scenario giving 45g fibre per day to contribute to good gut health.

In the next article we’ll look at how we can use the food insulin index data to calculate the most ketogenic diet foods.

references

[1] http://www.bengreenfieldfitness.com/2013/05/low-carb-triathlon-training/

[2] http://www.timothyallenolson.com/2013/04/10/nutrition/

[3] http://zachbitter.com/blog/2012/10/high-carb-vs-high-fat.html

[4] http://www.samiinkinen.com/

[5] http://www.thecavewomandiva.com/?p=121

[6] http://www.ultrarunning.com/features/health-and-nutrition/the-emerging-science-on-fat-adaptation/

[7] http://blog.dansplan.com/why-dietary-fat-is-fattening-and-when-its-not/

[8] http://thatpaleoguy.com/2010/09/15/high-fat-diets-for-cyclists-part-one-of-six/

[9] https://www.t-nation.com/diet-fat-loss/insulin-advantage

[10] http://livinlavidalowcarb.com/blog/tag/ben-greenfield

[11] http://beyondtrainingbook.com/

[12] http://carbbackloading.com

[13] http://carbnite.com/

[14] http://www.cerealkillersmovie.com/

[15] http://www.fatchancerow.org/expedition/

[16] https://twitter.com/proftimnoakes/status/450136949459001344

[17] http://www.amazon.com/Lore-Running-Edition-Timothy-Noakes/dp/0873229592

[18] http://www.samiinkinen.com/

[19] http://www.fatchancerow.org/

[20] https://www.dropbox.com/s/ninuwyreda0epix/Optimising%20nutrition%2C%20managing%20insulin.docx?dl=0

[21] http://www.mensfitnessmagazine.com.au/2012/02/the-fittest-man-on-earth/

[22] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XyvlWUQAkxM