Tag Archives: ketogenic diet foods

which nutrients is YOUR diet missing?  

I recently took a look at which nutrients might be missing from various popular dietary approaches in preparation for a recent on nutrient density.  At a population level, the chart below shows the proportion of the US population that are deficient in various micronutrients.  Many people are not getting enough vitamin D, vitamin E, magnesium, calcium, etc.

While your body hasn’t read the World Health Organisation’s reports on the Daily Recommended Intake of the various essential nutrients,[1] it’s likely that your appetite will drive you to seek out the nutrients that are lacking.  If we are deficient in something that is required the body kicks in “nutrient hunger” and cravings that will make sure it gets what it needs.[2] [3] [4]

If you work hard to restrict your food intake to a certain dietary approach, but the body doesn’t receive the nutrients it needs, it may slow down and not function at full capacity.   By contrast, adequate nutrition, without too much energy, slows many of the modern diseases of aging such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s and cancer and improves your chance of living healthfully to a ripe old age.[5]

USDA foods database

The chart below shows the nutrients that are both easiest and hardest to obtain from the eight thousand foods in the USDA foods database.  At the bottom of this plot we have iron, various amino acids, and vitamin C, all of which are easy to obtain in adequate quantities.

However, at the top of the chart, we can see that it is much harder to obtain adequate quantities of six essential nutrients (omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, choline, vitamin E, and potassium).  We would obtain sufficient quantities of all the other essential nutrients if we ate just a little of each of the foods in the USDA food database.

If we want to maximise nutrient density, it makes sense to prioritise foods that contain more of the harder-to-obtain nutrients.  The chart below shows the nutrients for the top 10% of the 8000 foods in the USDA database (blue bars) when we prioritise for those.  Not only do we get an increase in the more difficult to obtain nutrients, we also get a massive boost in all nutrients.  Rather than being inadequate in six nutrients, we are now lacking only one (alpha-Linolenic acid, an Omega 3 fatty acid).

Limiting our food selection to the most nutrient dense foods makes it easier for us to consume the required nutrients without excessive energy, which is ideal if we are trying to lose fat or reduce calorie intake to slow the diseases of ageing.[6] [7]  Nutrient density becomes even more important if you’re fasting or restricting calories to achieve long term weight loss.

Optimising nutrient density

If you’re reading this, then you’re likely aware that there is a wide variety of dietary approaches that people follow to optimise their health depending on their preferences and beliefs.

I’ve tried to turn many of these beliefs about nutrition into a quantitative algorithm that we can use to evaluate and compare these approaches, and make sure we’re getting the outcome we want (e.g. low insulin, blood glucose control, nutrient density, or low/high energy density).

After testing a number of options, the three quantitative parameters that I have found the three parameters that are most useful are:

  • insulin load,
  • nutrient density, and
  • energy density.

My aim in this post is to show how considering nutrient density can improve various dietary approaches, from therapeutic ketogenic, vegan, paleo, and low fat.   This post highlights which nutrients you will most likely be lacking with each of the different nutritional approaches, which foods you can use to fill these nutritional gaps, and perhaps which supplements you may need if you are still looking for some added nutritional insurance.

There’s been a lot of talk lately by Taubes[8] and Lustig[9] about how bad sugar and fructose are, but I think these nutritive sweeteners are just extreme examples of nutrient poor foods that are highly insulinogenic and energy dense.  At the other end of the spectrum, we have foods like liver, broccoli, and spinach.  Everything else is somewhere in the middle and will support or work against your goals, whatever they may be, to different degrees.

My aim here is to help you see where each of these foods sits on that continuum and use this information to help you refine your food choices to reach your personal goals.

Therapeutic ketogenic diet

Let’s start with the therapeutic ketogenic dietary approach.   I have previously noted that a number of the issues and concerns with the ketogenic diet seem to relate to being able to obtain essential nutrients rather than consuming excessive levels of fat.[10] [11] [12]  On one hand, I’m excited that the concepts of insulin load and percentage of insulinogenic calories have been helpful for people with chronic conditions such as epilepsy, cancer, dementia, Alzheimer’s etc.  However, I think there is a risk their ultra-high fat diet will not contain the nutrients which are critically important for mitochondrial function and energy production.

The chart below shows the vitamins and minerals provided by a therapeutic ketogenic dietary approach if we simply prioritise for low insulin load (red bars)[13] in comparison to the average of all foods in the USDA database (orange bars).  If you don’t pay attention to nutrient density a therapeutic ketogenic diet can provide lower levels of nutrition.

As shown in the chart below if we ate a little of all the foods in the USDA database, we would be deficient in six essential nutrients, whereas if we follow a therapeutic ketogenic diet, we will likely be lacking in ten essential nutrients.

The chart below shows the effect of how thinking in terms of nutrient density can improve the therapeutic ketogenic dietary approach (blue bars) compared to prioritising for insulin load only (red bars).  All nutrients are boosted, particularly the harder to obtain ones.

While lots of people find that higher fat whole foods are hard to overeat, there are still some hyper palatable high fat foods that go down easily.  We talk about eating “fat to satiety”, but what happens when nutrient hunger kicks in and your body is craving more potassium, magnesium, calcium, or one of the other nutrients that are harder to obtain in a very high fat dietary approach?  If you keep on consuming large amounts of processed fats that don’t contain the nutrients you require, your appetite may not automatically turn off before you’ve consumed a lot of excess energy!

Low carb

The chart below shows the boost in nutrients when we consider nutrient density combined with a low carbohydrate approach.  It appears that, based on this analysis, that without a focus on nutrient density, a low carbohydrate diet is likely to be deficient in folate, vitamin D, choline, potassium, magnesium, pantothenic acid, calcium, vitamin E and manganese.  With a focus on nutrient dense foods, a low carb diet provides adequate amounts of the majority of nutrients.

Weight loss (insulin sensitive)

The weight loss approach is intended for people who are insulin sensitive but still have excess body fat to lose.  Foods with a lower energy density (e.g. spinach, broccoli cucumber, celery, lettuce etc) typically are harder to overeat because they are bulky.

This approach doesn’t pay any attention to insulin load because it is assumed that people using this approach are not insulin resistant and are able to maintain good blood glucose levels.  Practically, it’s also difficult to achieve a really high insulin load with these foods because they do not contain a large amount of processed carbs and are hard to overeat.

Without consideration of nutrient density, the essential fatty acids tend to be low along with vitamin B-12, choline, and tyrosine.  However, once we factor in nutrient density all these nutrients dramatically improve.

This approach may not be viable for long term maintenance due to the extremely low energy density which would make it hard to get in enough energy.  However, in the short term, it may be appropriate for a period of substantial energy restriction, and will provide maximum nutrition with a minimum amount of energy.

Zero carb

Getting adequate protein on a zero-carb approach is not a problem.  However, unless there is a major focus on organ meats, there are a large number of vitamins and minerals, such as   vitamin K, manganese, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin D, potassium, magnesium and calcium that may be worth supplementing.

Vegan

At the other extreme, the chart shows the nutritional analysis of the vegan diet.  The main deficiencies in a vegan approach are omega 3s and vitamin B-12, which are hard to obtain without animal products.  It may be prudent for vegans to consider fish oil supplementation and B-12 injections, or alternatively adding some seafood occasionally.

While it appears possible to obtain the recommended levels of protein, it’s hard to get very high levels of it.    If you are insulin resistant, the fat levels can be increased using added coconut products and nuts.

Higher insulin load foods for bulking

The bulking approach is designed for people who are looking to gain strength and size by combining nutrient density with more calories and insulin load.  Without consideration of nutrient density, a high insulin load means very low nutrient density foods.  However, once we factor in nutrient density, we get a range of highly nutritious foods that may be helpful if you want to gain size and strength, while still maximising health and nutrition.

Paleo

The chart below shows the nutrients provided by the Paleo approach (i.e. no processed foods, dairy or grains) both with and without consideration of nutrient density.  While ‘going Paleo’ eliminates many of the nutrient-poor processed food, it appears to be beneficial to also consider nutrient density as well in addition.

What does this all mean?

So, how do we decide which approach is best?  Unfortunately, it’s not straightforward so I’ll look at this a number of ways.

What we ideally want is to identify the foods that will provide us with high amounts of all of the nutrients.   The blue bars in the chart below represents the average of the % daily recommended intake of all the nutrients in the various approaches evaluated above, without considering nutrient density.  The orange bars represent the average minus 0.5 x the standard deviation which is a measure of reliability.  The higher the reliability the more consistent and high are the nutrients over all.

This chart shows that, in comparison to the other approaches, Paleo foods have a high and consistent level of nutrients; while the vegan and low energy density weight loss foods have high levels of some individual nutrients, but low levels of some others.  Without consideration of nutrient density, the high insulin, low carb and zero carb approaches are a bit lacking in nutrients.

Things become a little more interesting once we factor in nutrient density.  The vegan, therapeutic keto, low carb and zero carb approaches do poorly against the paleo, higher insulin load, most nutrient dense of all foods, and the lower energy density weight loss foods.

Many people will benefit on a high fat therapeutic ketogenic dietary approach, at least until their blood glucose and insulin levels normalise.  However, in time, it may be beneficial to transition to more nutrient dense foods to continue their journey towards optimal health.

As detailed in the ‘how to optimise your diet for insulin resistance’ article, I think you should eat the most nutrient dense foods your pancreas can keep up with while maintaining good blood glucose levels.  In time, someone who is highly insulin resistant may be able to progress to a more nutrient dense and more moderate fat approach if your ultimate goal is to normalise blood glucose levels and lose weight.

Food lists

If you identify with any of these goals, you may be interested in following these food lists.   If blood glucose levels are sky high or you are managing a chronic condition such as epilepsy, cancer, Alzheimer’s or dementia, you may benefit from a higher fat therapeutic keto dietary approach, for a period.  As your glucose levels come under control, you can transition to more nutrient dense foods that will also help you to achieve your weight goals.

approach average glucose waist : height

(mg/dL)

(mmol/L)
therapeutic ketosis

> 140

> 7.8
diabetes and nutritional ketosis

108 to 140

6.0 to 7.8
weight loss (insulin resistant)

100 to 108

5.4 to 6.0

> 0.5

weight loss (insulin sensitive)

< 97

< 5.4

> 0.5

bulking

< 97

< 5.4

< 0.5

nutrient dense maintenance

< 97

< 5.4

< 0.5

Getting even more personal

As you can see, nutrients are provided at different levels depending on the approach.  However, most people don’t follow any dietary approach strictly, so the nutrients in your diet will be different depending on your personal habits and preferences.

Rather than trying to pick up someone else’s nutrition plan, or live by a strict list, I think it’s better to refine your current habits, emphasising the good foods, minimising the bad, and progressively trying new foods that may be beneficial.

To this end, I’ve been developing a Nutrient Optimizer algorithm that can help you refine your food choices to suit your goals.  By identifying the foods you are currently eating that align most with your current goals, which ones don’t, and which new foods perhaps you should consider.

Most current nutritional advice is driven by the avoidance of fat, particularly saturated fat, and therefore ends up being next to useless.  Calorie counting apps like MyFitnessPal does nothing but count calories, which is also of limited use.  Cron-o-meter tracks your micronutrients and can recommend foods to boost a single nutrient.  However, there doesn’t seem to be anything available that will tell you which foods will help you actually correct multiple deficiencies and  achieve a diet that is truly balanced in micronutrients.

The Nutrient Optimiser also allows you to tailor the approach to your goals, such as:  therapeutic ketosis, diabetes management, weight loss or just nutrient dense maintenance.  Food preferences like vegan, pescetarian, autoimmune, or paleo can be factored in to the recommended food lists.

At the moment, the process involves manually exporting food intake data from Cron-o-meter, then analysing it in a spreadsheet to manually generate a personalised report.  I am eager to do this as a proof-of-concept for a range of people with various goals (particularly therapeutic ketosis, vegetarian, zero carb, fruitarian) to demonstrate how it works.  So, if you’re happy to have your report shared publicly, and have a couple of weeks of Cron-o-meter data, feel free to send it to me and  have your data analysed.

In time, the plan is to automate the process via an online interface and then ideally an independent mobile app.    To keep up-to-date with progress, watch this space and check out the various analysed examples on the Marty Kendall’s Nutrient Optimiser Facebook page.

Epilogue…  limitations

For completeness, I thought it would be worth mentioning a few limitations relating to calculating nutrient density…

  1. Measuring foods in terms of calories has its own limitations as different macronutrients provide different amounts of energy (ATP) in different people. Some smart friends of mine are working on calculating ATP yield for different foods based on their macronutrient content.  I’ll happily update this analysis in terms of nutrients per ATP as soon as that data is available.  Initial indications are that people who are fat-adapted are able to use fat more efficiently (i.e. less entropy/losses in metabolism) and hence require less calories to yield the same amount of energy in the body (i.e. ATP).  Hence, it appears that it is even more important for someone following a low carb or ketogenic approach to maximise nutrient density in terms of nutrients per calorie.
  2. The official dietary reference values are based on limited research.[14] Typically, they relate to the minimum amount of a nutrient to avoid disease rather than the amount required for optimal function.  They may also vary by person (e.g. someone who is more active may need more protein) and by their diet type (e.g. someone who is on a low carb diet may need less vitamin C to process the limited amount of glucose).  Hence, I think the DRI values should be seen as a minimum.  Ideally, we want to get more than the minimum while not having to ingest too much energy.  I also don’t think nutrients are meant to come as individual vitamins and minerals in a bottle.  The nutrients required to metabolise a certain food typically come packaged in whole foods, and often work synergistically.  Taking supplements or fortifying foods will always be inferior to obtaining nutrients from whole foods.
  3. Species-specific bioavailability and anti-nutrients are contentious topics. Zero carbers will tell you that nutrients in animal based foods are more bioavailable than plant based foods, while the vegans will tell you the opposite.  To date, I haven’t been able to find useful data that would enable me to quantitatively refine the nutrient data in the USDA database regarding bioavailability.  All we currently have is a measure of the nutrients contained in the food– rather than the nutrients that make it into your body after digestion.  Again, if this data ever comes to hand, I’ll eagerly update the analysis.

Overall, I don’t think these limitations make a difference in the outcomes of the analysis.  This is not an exact science and the body doesn’t operation like a rigid machine.  Calculation of nutrient density is just a way to identify the foods that contain the most raw materials with the least amount of calories that your body can work with.

referecnes

[1] http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/nutrient/en/

[2] https://books.google.com.au/books?id=gtQyAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA185&lpg=PA185&dq=%22nutrient+hunger%22&source=bl&ots=VMRQ8EbvHx&sig=l_xJEksBS538UX3QwQNxVJBXTLw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjRj6mSs5DSAhWKyLwKHXBQAjEQ6AEIKDAC#v=onepage&q=%22nutrient%20hunger%22&f=false

[3] https://www.amazon.com/Perfect-Health-Diet-Regain-Weight/dp/1451699158

[4] https://www.amazon.com/Dorito-Effect-Surprising-Truth-Flavor/dp/1476724237

[5] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2016/03/21/wanna-live-forever/

[6] http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/78/3/361.full

[7] http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14063

[8] https://www.amazon.com/Case-Against-Sugar-Gary-Taubes/dp/0307701646

[9] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBnniua6-oM

[10] https://www.thepaleomom.com/adverse-reactions-to-ketogenic-diets-caution-advised/

[11] http://ketotalk.com/2016/06/23-responding-to-the-paleo-mom-dr-sarah-ballantynes-claims-against-the-ketogenic-diet/

[12] http://www.thelivinlowcarbshow.com/shownotes/10888/868-dr-sarah-ballantyne-challenges-the-wisdom-of-low-carb-diets-for-women-2/

[13] In terms of macronutrients this high fat dietary approach comes out at 80% fat, 15% protein, 2% fibre and 3% net carbs.

[14] http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/nutrient/en/

nutrient dense foods for weight loss and insulin resistance

I found a number of people that were using the a combination of the optimal foods for diabetes and nutritional ketosis and the optimal foods for weight loss lists.  So I thought it would be useful to combine the two approaches into a single list of foods for people who want to lose weight but who were still somewhat insulin resistant.

optimal foods for diabetes and nutritional ketosis

The food ranking system revolves around manipulating these three parameters to suit different goals:

The optimal foods for diabetes and nutritional ketosis list has a low insulin load, is fairly low in non-fibre carbs and moderately high fat while still being as nutrient dense as possible.

This approach suits someone who has Type 1 Diabetes or is lean and looking to achieve nutritional ketosis.  People who are at their goal weight can afford to eat a little more added dietary fat.

img_7321-1

While  most people looking to manage their blood glucose levels limit their carbohydrates to some arbitrary number that works for them, maximising nutrient density as well will help you to improve your mitochondrial function and increase your energy levels to ideally overcome your insulin resistance.  Maximising nutrient density also means that your body won’t keep on seeking out more and more food to obtain the nutrients it requires.

People who are very insulin resistant often do well on a higher fat dietary approach initially to let the insulin levels drop, however they often find further success in the long term if they drop their dietary fat to let more fat come from their body.

optimal foods for weight loss

The optimal foods for weight loss list is fairly low in dietary fat to allow for to come form the body during weight loss.  It’s heavy in lean proteins and non-starchy veggies and is VERY nutrient dense.  The chart below shows a comparison of a range of dietary approaches with the insulin sensitive weight loss approach being having the highest nutrient density while the diabetes and nutritional ketosis approach comes in at #8 of thirteen.

2016-10-16-4

This list of foods may look like a low fat dietary approach, but it’s not really low fat once you factor in your body fat.  The chart from Steve Phinney illustrates how your body fat makes a contribution to the weight loss phase of a well formulated ketogenic diet.

2016-10-10 (1).png

The weight loss list of foods is also quite bulky (i.e. lots of fibre and water) so they would be very hard to overeat if you stick to just these foods.  The chart below show a comparison of the various approaches with the weight loss approach having the lowest energy density.

2016-10-16-6

Eating from the weight loss foods basically equates to a protein sparing modified fast (which is widely held to be the most effect way to lose weight in the long term) meaning that will fill you up so much you won’t be above to overeat while at the same time providing enough protein to preserve lean muscle mass during the weight loss phase.

The “problem” with the aggressive weight loss approach is that it is very low in energy dense comfort foods and it is higher in carbohydrates and protein than most low carbers might be used to, so it might be harder to stick to.  It may also raise your blood glucose levels if you’re still somewhat insulin resistant.

finding the optimal balance between the extremes

I have designed this list of foods for people who are insulin resistant and also looking to lose weight provides a balance between both extremes – high nutrient density, lowish levels of dietary fat and lower energy density.

The foods listed below represent the top 10% of the USDA food database using this ranking system.  I’ve included the nutrient density score, percentage of insulinogenic calories, insulin load (per 100g), energy density (per 100g) and the multicriteria analysis score score (MCA) that combines all these factors.

The chart below shows the amount of each nutrient provided by the more balanced approach compared to average of all the foods in the USDA food database.  As you can see you will still be able to obtain heaps of nutrients while the fat comes from your body.

weight-loss-insulin-resistant

vegetables

food ND % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
broccoli 23 36% 3 22 2.07
endive 15 23% 1 17 1.84
coriander 16 30% 2 23 1.79
zucchini 18 40% 2 17 1.75
chicory greens 14 23% 2 23 1.74
spinach 20 49% 4 23 1.66
escarole 11 24% 1 19 1.58
basil 17 47% 3 23 1.55
alfalfa 9 19% 1 23 1.51
watercress 22 65% 2 11 1.51
beet greens 13 35% 2 22 1.49
asparagus 16 50% 3 22 1.44
lettuce 14 50% 2 15 1.33
Chinese cabbage 15 54% 2 12 1.29
summer squash 12 45% 2 19 1.26
okra 13 50% 3 22 1.26
parsley 13 48% 5 36 1.25
cauliflower 13 50% 4 25 1.23
chard 13 51% 3 19 1.22
portabella mushrooms 14 55% 5 29 1.20
mustard greens 9 36% 3 27 1.20
arugula 11 45% 3 25 1.17
turnip greens 10 44% 4 29 1.17
chives 11 48% 4 30 1.14
banana pepper 8 36% 3 27 1.13
paprika 9 27% 26 282 1.11
cucumber 7 39% 1 12 1.08
pickles 7 39% 1 12 1.08
collards 7 37% 4 33 1.07
celery 10 50% 3 18 1.03
brown mushrooms 16 73% 5 22 1.01
avocado -0 8% 3 160 0.99
white mushroom 13 65% 5 22 0.99
shitake mushroom 12 58% 7 39 0.98
red peppers 6 40% 3 31 0.98
dandelion greens 10 54% 7 45 0.97
sauerkraut 5 39% 2 19 0.96
dill 11 59% 8 43 0.96
eggplant 4 35% 3 25 0.95
cloves 9 35% 35 274 0.95
radishes 6 43% 2 16 0.94
sage 7 26% 26 315 0.93
jalapeno peppers 5 37% 3 27 0.93
curry powder 3 13% 14 325 0.92
edamame 7 41% 13 121 0.89
chayote 5 40% 3 24 0.88
olives -5 3% 1 145 0.80
Brussel sprouts 6 50% 6 42 0.78
spirulina 11 70% 6 26 0.76
soybeans (sprouted) 6 49% 12 81 0.76
cabbage 7 55% 4 23 0.75
blackberries -1 27% 3 43 0.71
artichokes 5 49% 7 47 0.71

seafood

food ND % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
fish roe 18 47% 18 143 1.45
salmon 19 52% 20 156 1.44
trout 16 45% 18 168 1.36
caviar 13 33% 23 264 1.25
oyster 16 59% 14 102 1.19
cisco 9 29% 13 177 1.17
sturgeon 13 49% 16 135 1.13
mackerel 6 14% 10 305 1.08
anchovy 12 44% 22 210 1.08
crab 17 71% 14 83 1.01
sardines 9 36% 16 185 1.01
flounder 13 57% 12 86 1.01
herring 9 36% 19 217 0.97
sardine 9 37% 19 208 1.0
halibut 15 66% 17 111 0.96
tuna 12 52% 23 184 0.91
rockfish 13 66% 17 109 0.86
lobster 14 71% 15 89 0.85
crayfish 12 67% 13 82 0.82
shrimp 13 69% 19 119 0.81
pollock 13 69% 18 111 0.79
perch 10 62% 14 96 0.73

animal products

image09

food ND % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
lamb liver 19 48% 20 168 1.47
lamb kidney 19 52% 15 112 1.45
turkey liver 16 47% 21 189 1.25
beef brains 8 22% 8 151 1.24
veal liver 17 55% 26 192 1.20
beef liver 17 59% 25 175 1.14
chicken liver 14 50% 20 172 1.13
beef kidney 14 52% 20 157 1.10
lamb brains 6 27% 10 154 1.05
chicken liver pate 7 34% 17 201 0.91
lamb heart 10 48% 19 161 0.90
ham 12 59% 17 113 0.88
ground turkey 6 30% 19 258 0.88
turkey heart 9 47% 20 174 0.85
rib eye steak 8 41% 21 210 0.84
roast pork 7 41% 20 199 0.83
roast beef 7 38% 21 219 0.83
beef tongue 1 16% 11 284 0.81
lamb sweetbread 6 43% 15 144 0.79
lamb chop 8 42% 25 234 0.79
lean beef 11 61% 23 149 0.78
beef heart 9 52% 23 179 0.78
park sausage 2 25% 13 217 0.78
pork liver 11 59% 23 165 0.77
turkey meat 8 52% 21 158 0.74
turkey drumstick 8 52% 21 158 0.74
chicken 10 60% 22 148 0.73

dairy and egg

image08

food ND % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
whole egg 9 30% 10 143 1.20
egg yolk 8 18% 12 275 1.15
sour cream 2 13% 6 198 1.02
cream 2 6% 5 340 0.93
cream cheese 2 11% 10 350 0.84
Swiss cheese 5 22% 22 393 0.80
cheddar cheese 5 20% 20 410 0.78
Greek yogurt 3 37% 9 97 0.74

other dietary approaches

The table below contains links to separate blog posts and printable .pdfs for a range of dietary approaches (sorted from most to least nutrient dense) that may be of interest depending on your situation and goals.   You can print them out to stick to your fridge or take on your next shopping expedition for some inspiration.

dietary approach printable .pdf
weight loss (insulin sensitive) download
autoimmune (nutrient dense) download
alkaline foods download
nutrient dense bulking download
nutrient dense (maintenance) download
weight loss (insulin resistant) download
autoimmune (diabetes friendly) download
zero carb download
diabetes and nutritional ketosis download
vegan (nutrient dense) download
vegan (diabetic friendly) download
therapeutic ketosis download
avoid download

If you’re not sure which approach is right for you and whether you are insulin resistant, this survey may help identify the optimal dietary approach for you.

image02

nutrient dense diabetic friendly vegan foods

  • Eating plant-based foods can be a great way to improve nutrient density and reduce the amount of highly insulinogenic processed carbohydrates in your diet.
  • This article looks at how we can optimize a plant-based diet for nutrient density as well as diabetic friendly by reducing insulin load.
  • Finally, we will look at whether adding additional food groups such as seafood, dairy or eggs would diminish or improve the nutrient density of a plant based approach.

nutrient density

A nutrient dense diet is key to maximizing health and satiety with a minimum of calories.  Maximising nutrient density enables our mitochondria to do more with less.

If our world is full of beneficial nutrients our body realises that there is no longer an energy crisis and is more likely to stop searching for more nutrients and lets go of our stored body fat and decrease appetite.

As detailed in the ‘Building a Better Nutrient Density Index’ article, quantifying nutrient density enables us to prioritise foods that contain the highest amount of essential nutrients that are harder to obtain.[1]

The chart below (click to enlarge) shows the percentage of the recommended daily intake of various essential nutrients provided by:

  • all 7000+ foods in the USDA foods database,
  • plant based foods, and
  • the most nutrient dense plant based foods.

2016-10-22

Restricting ourselves to ‘plant based’ foods will improve the vitamin and mineral content of the foods we eat.  However, focusing on the most nutrient dense plant based foods allows us to improve nutrient density even further

most nutrient dense plant based foods

Listed below is a summary of the most nutrient dense plant based foods sorted by their nutrient density score.  The nutrient density score (ND) is shown for each of the foods.

As you can see from the plot below from Nutrition Data, celery, which has a very high nutrient density score (ND), will provide you with a range of vitamins and minerals equivalent to 92% of your recommended daily intake with 1000 calories and 83% of your protein intake with 1000 calories.  Keep in mind though that you would need to eat five bunches of celery to get that 1000 calories though.

2016-10-22-1

The fact that broccoli has a low energy density may be a benefit if you are trying to lose weight, but perhaps would not be so helpful if you are fueling for an Ironman Triathlon.

Also shown in the tables below is the net carbohydrates and calories per 100g for each of the foods listed.

The great thing about most of these foods is that they will provide you with heaps of nutrients while having a low energy density which will make it hard to over consume them to a point that they will spike your blood glucose levels.

Listed below are the most nutrient dense plant based foods.  In the second half of this article we will look at how we can choose foods that will be more gentle on blood glucose levels for those of us that are more insulin resistant.

vegetables and spices 

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
watercress 13 2 11 2.2
white mushroom 10 5 22 1.8
spinach 10 4 23 1.7
portabella mushrooms 10 5 29 1.7
asparagus 10 3 22 1.7
spirulina 9 6 26 1.5
alfalfa 9 1 23 1.5
brown mushrooms 8 5 22 1.3
basil 8 3 23 1.3
chard 8 3 19 1.3
endive 7 1 17 1.2
shiitake mushroom 7 7 39 1.2
seaweed (wakame) 7 11 45 1.1
zucchini 6 2 17 1.0
cauliflower 6 4 25 1.0
Chinese cabbage 6 2 12 1.0
turnip greens 5 4 29 0.9
chicory greens 5 2 23 0.9
escarole 5 1 19 0.9
mung beans 5 4 19 0.9
lettuce 5 2 15 0.9
parsley 5 5 36 0.8
radicchio 4 4 23 0.7
edamame 4 13 121 0.7
bamboo shoots 4 5 27 0.7
peas 4 7 42 0.7
soybeans (sprouted) 4 12 81 0.7
seaweed (kelp) 4 10 43 0.6
shiitake mushrooms 3 72 296 0.6
chives 3 4 30 0.6
paprika 3 26 282 0.6
coriander 3 2 23 0.6
collards 3 4 33 0.5
summer squash 3 2 19 0.5
beet greens 3 2 22 0.5
okra 3 3 22 0.5
mustard seed 3 37 508 0.5
celery 2 3 18 0.5
curry powder 2 14 325 0.4
arugula 2 3 25 0.4
Brussel sprouts 2 6 42 0.4
pumpkin 2 4 20 0.3
snap beans 1 3 15 0.3
carrots 1 4 23 0.2
chayote 1 3 24 0.2
cabbage 1 4 23 0.2
cloves 1 35 274 0.2
kale 1 5 28 0.2
radishes 0 2 16 0.1
jalapeno peppers 0 3 27 0.1
dandelion greens 0 7 45 0.1
pickles 0 1 12 0.1
cucumber 0 1 12 0.1
turnips 0 3 21 0.1
eggplant -0 3 25 0.1
red peppers -0 3 31 0.0
lima beans -0 20 113 0.0
yeast extract spread -0 27 185 0.0
sauerkraut -0 2 19 0.0

legumes

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
tofu 5 8 83 0.9
soybeans 2 49 446 0.3
lentils 1 19 116 0.2
natto 1 22 211 0.2
navy beans 1 22 140 0.2
cowpeas 0 68 336 0.1
broad beans -0 54 341 0.0
peas -0 57 352 0.0

nuts and seeds

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
sunflower seeds 3 22 546 0.6
pumpkin seeds -0 29 559 0.0
brazil nuts -0 16 659 0.0
walnuts -1 22 619 -0.1
almond butter -2 26 614 -0.2
almonds -2 25 607 -0.2
flax seed -2 16 534 -0.3
pistachio nuts -2 34 569 -0.3
sesame seeds -3 17 631 -0.4
coconut water -3 3 19 -0.4
hazelnuts -3 17 629 -0.4
cashews -3 40 580 -0.4
sesame butter -3 33 586 -0.4
pine nuts -3 21 673 -0.4
butternuts -3 28 612 -0.5

fruit

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
carambola -1 5 31 -0.1
blackberries -2 3 43 -0.3
cranberries -2 8 46 -0.3
avocado -2 3 160 -0.3
kiwifruit -2 9 61 -0.3
apricots -3 10 48 -0.4
raspberries -3 4 52 -0.4
peaches -3 8 39 -0.4
grapefruit -3 8 33 -0.4
mulberries -3 9 43 -0.5
boysenberries -3 8 50 -0.5
strawberries -3 4 32 -0.5
nectarines -3 9 44 -0.5

diabetic friendly nutrient dense vegan foods

While the foods listed above would represent a significant dietary improvement for most people, those who are insulin resistant may struggle to keep their blood glucose levels stable if they eat too much non-fibre carbohydrate that can be found in plant based foods (e.g. bread, sweet potato, quinoa, rice, beans or spaghetti).

It is hard to get too many calories and / or spike your glucose levels if you restrict yourself to vegetables like celery, broccoli and spinach.

The problem comes if you are still hungry after you have eaten your fill of non-starchy veggies and are not wanting to lose more weight.  People using a plant based approach may end up filling up on energy dense higher carbohydrate foods which are more likely to raise their blood glucose and insulin levels.

As shown in the chart below, our insulin response to food is only partially explained by the quantity of carbohydrates in our food.

image01

The analysis of the food insulin index data indicates that our insulin response is also influenced by the fibre and the protein in the foods we eat.

image02

We can use the formula below to estimate the amount of insulin that our food will require as shown by the formula below.  Foods with a lower insulin load will enable your pancreas to keep up with demand and maintain normal blood glucose levels without the ‘blood glucose roller coaster’.

insulin load (g)=carbohydrates (g)-fiber (g) + 0.56*protein (g)

The higher fat foods actually have a lower nutrient density than the most nutrient dense vegetarian foods listed above.  Ideally in time someone with insulin resistance would be able to restore their insulin sensitivity through eating nutrient dense, low insulin load foods along with perhaps intermittent fasting and exercise.  However, in the meantime the lower insulin load foods will enable you to maintain normal blood glucose levels.

The list of foods below is prioritised by both nutrient density and the proportion of insulinogenic calories.  These foods will provide high levels of nutrition while also being gentle on your blood glucose levels with lower levels of insulin required.

vegetables

The vegetables in this list have a lower percentage of insulinogenic calories, lower amounts of net carbohydrates and a low energy density and therefore will have a minimal impact on blood glucose levels.   While the percentage of insulinogenic calories is often high, the net carbohydrates is low so the effect on blood glucose will be minimal.

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
curry powder 2 14 325 1.5
alfalfa 9 1 23 1.5
endive 8 1 17 1.3
poppy seeds -2 23 525 1.3
chicory greens 5 2 23 1.3
escarole 6 1 19 1.2
paprika 3 26 282 1.1
mustard seed 3 37 508 1.1
caraway seed -0 28 333 1.0
coriander 2 2 23 1.0
nutmeg -8 32 525 0.9
sage -5 26 315 0.9
mace -8 34 475 0.8
beet greens 3 2 22 0.8
marjoram -6 27 271 0.7
collards 3 4 33 0.7
eggplant -0 3 25 0.7
cloves -0 35 274 0.7
zucchini 6 2 17 0.7
thyme -2 31 276 0.7
banana pepper -2 3 27 0.6
edamame 5 13 121 0.6
jalapeno peppers -1 3 27 0.6
mustard greens -2 3 27 0.6
cinnamon -5 30 247 0.6
turnip greens 8 4 29 0.6
spinach 13 4 23 0.6
sauerkraut -1 2 19 0.6
pickles -1 1 12 0.6
cucumber -1 1 12 0.6
chayote 0 3 24 0.5
basil 9 3 23 0.5
red peppers -1 3 31 0.5
asparagus 11 3 22 0.5
radishes -1 2 16 0.4
cumin -6 44 375 0.4
summer squash 3 2 19 0.4
dill seed -3 43 305 0.4
parsley 5 5 36 0.4
chard 9 3 19 0.4
chives 5 4 30 0.4
arugula 0 3 25 0.4
lettuce 6 2 15 0.4
soybeans (sprouted) 5 12 81 0.4
cauliflower 6 4 25 0.3
portabella mushrooms 11 5 29 0.3
okra 4 3 22 0.3
Chinese cabbage 8 2 12 0.3
Brussel sprouts 1 6 42 0.2
carrots -1 5 37 0.2
celery 2 3 18 0.2
turnips -0 3 21 0.2
artichokes -2 7 47 0.2
shiitake mushroom 7 7 39 0.1
watercress 17 2 11 0.1
dandelion greens -1 7 45 0.0
cabbage 0 4 23 0.0
celery flakes -4 42 319 -0.0
red cabbage -3 5 29 -0.0
white mushroom 11 5 22 -0.1
snap beans 1 3 15 -0.1
bay leaf -7 53 313 -0.1
bamboo shoots 4 5 27 -0.1
rhubarb -4 3 21 -0.1
pepper -2 47 251 -0.1
kale 1 5 28 -0.1
yeast extract spread -2 27 185 -0.2
carrots 1 4 23 -0.2
spirulina 13 6 26 -0.2
peas 5 7 42 -0.2
turnips -3 4 22 -0.3
turmeric -2 52 312 -0.3
radicchio 4 4 23 -0.3
onions -0 6 32 -0.3
carrots -1 7 41 -0.3
potatoes -4 26 158 -0.4

nuts and seeds seeds

Nuts and seeds have a lower proportion of insulinogenic calories as well as being lower in net carbs which makes them diabetic friendly.  They do have a considerably higher energy density and hence, unlike the veggies, it is possible to overeat nuts and seeds if you’re keeping an eye on your weight.

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
brazil nuts -1 16 659 1.6
pecans -6 12 691 1.6
macadamia nuts -7 12 718 1.6
sesame seeds -3 17 631 1.5
sunflower seeds 3 22 546 1.5
hazelnuts -4 17 629 1.5
coconut milk -6 5 230 1.5
coconut cream -7 7 330 1.5
flax seed -3 16 534 1.5
coconut meat -7 9 354 1.5
walnuts -1 22 619 1.5
pine nuts -4 21 673 1.5
almonds -3 25 607 1.4
almond butter -2 26 614 1.3
butternuts -3 28 612 1.3
pumpkin seeds -0 29 559 1.3
sesame butter -4 33 586 1.1
pistachio nuts -3 34 569 1.1
cashews -4 40 580 0.9
coconut -7 39 443 0.6
gingko nuts -6 15 111 -0.0
coconut water -3 3 19 -0.4

fruits

The list of diabetic friendly fruits with a lower proportion of insulinogenic calories ends up being quite short.  Some of these fruits will raise your blood glucose levels if you eat enough of them.  So if you are particularly insulin resistant then you will want to limit your quantity of fruit or stick to the lower insulin load fruits (e.g. olives and avocados rather than mango).

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
olives -6 1 145 1.7
avocado -4 3 160 1.6
blackberries -4 3 43 0.9
raspberries -4 4 52 0.8
strawberries -4 4 32 0.1
apples -7 7 52 0.0
gooseberries -6 6 44 -0.0
carambola -1 5 31 -0.0
kiwifruit -3 9 61 -0.1
boysenberries -5 8 50 -0.1
passionfruit -7 14 97 -0.1
apples -7 7 48 -0.1
pears -7 7 50 -0.1
blueberries -6 9 57 -0.2
blueberries -7 14 88 -0.3
watermelon -5 5 30 -0.3
cherries -7 9 50 -0.4
mango -5 11 60 -0.4
cranberries -3 8 46 -0.4

legumes

These legumes have a lower proportion of insulinogenic calories and lower carbohydrates, however there may still be some impact on blood glucose with the moderate levels of carbohydrates, so you may want to keep an eye on your blood glucose levels when you try these foods to see how you react to them.

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
tofu 9 8 83 1.1
peanuts -3 29 599 0.5
natto 2 22 211 0.5
soybeans 3 49 446 0.5
peanut butter -4 27 593 0.4
lupin seeds 1 50 371 0.2
miso -1 25 198 0.1
lentils 1 19 116 -0.0
navy beans 0 22 140 -0.0
broad beans 0 54 341 -0.1
hummus -4 20 177 -0.1
peas -0 57 352 -0.1
chick peas -2 27 164 -0.2
kidney beans -0 63 337 -0.3
black beans -1 63 341 -0.3
cowpeas 1 68 336 -0.4
garbanzo beans -2 67 378 -0.4
pinto beans -1 64 347 -0.4

what about pescetarian, lacto, ovo options?

In the development of this article I spoke with Barry Erdman who runs the Vegetarian Low Carb Diabetic Healthy Diet Society Facebook group.

Barry has been a strict vegetarian since 1970 and was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes nine years ago.  Barry maintained a nutrient dense plant based diet after his diagnosis, however found that he needed to incorporate dairy, eggs and some oils (e.g. MCT, coconut) into his vegetarian diet in order to achieve acceptable blood glucose control.  Barry told me that when he lost 30 lbs when he switched from a vegetarian diet to a LCHF keto lacto ovo vegetarian diet eliminating all grains, bad oils and fruit (except berries).

Barry also came to the conclusion that he would need to incorporate some fish oil into his diet in order to provide adequate levels of essential fatty acids which are not available in significant quantities in plant based products.

Barry asked me to have a look at how a lacto, ovo, pescitarian diet would stack up against the straight vegan approach.  So listed below are the most nutrient dense lacto (dairy), ovo (eggs), and pescetarian (seafood) diabetic friendly foods.

image11

For those who are interested in adding eggs or seafood I have listed them based on their nutrient density and proportion of insulinogenic calories.

eggs and dairy

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
butter -6 3 718 1.7
cream -5 5 340 1.6
egg yolk 5 12 275 1.5
cream cheese -4 10 350 1.4
sour cream -4 6 198 1.4
limburger cheese -2 15 327 1.2
cheddar cheese -2 20 410 1.2
camembert -2 16 300 1.2
whole egg 5 10 143 1.2
blue cheese -2 19 353 1.1
Monterey cheese -2 19 373 1.1
muenster cheese -2 19 368 1.1
brie -3 16 334 1.1
Swiss cheese -1 22 393 1.1
gruyere cheese -1 23 413 1.1
feta cheese -1 15 264 1.1
Colby -3 20 394 1.1
edam cheese -2 21 357 1.1
goat cheese -3 14 264 1.1
gouda cheese -2 21 356 1.1
ricotta -3 12 174 0.9
sour cream (light) -4 9 136 0.9
mozzarella -0 26 304 0.8
parmesan cheese -2 35 420 0.7
Greek yogurt -2 9 97 0.6
milk (full fat) -1 7 64 0.4

seafood

food ND insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g MCA
mackerel 2 10 305 1.6
caviar 8 23 264 1.1
cisco 4 13 177 1.1
sardine 6 19 208 0.9
herring 5 19 217 0.9
fish roe 12 18 143 0.8
trout 10 18 168 0.8
anchovy 8 22 210 0.8
sturgeon 10 16 135 0.7
salmon 11 20 156 0.6
tuna 5 23 184 0.4
oyster 10 14 102 0.3
flounder 9 12 86 0.3
halibut 11 17 111 0.1
crayfish 12 13 82 0.1
perch 8 14 96 0.1
crab 14 14 83 0.1
rockfish 9 17 109 0.0

macronutrient comparison

The image below shows a comparison of the macronutrients of these different approaches compared to the average of all of the foods in the USDA foods database.

The nutrient dense vegan approach will provide a lot of of fibre which will make these foods very filling and hard to overeat, however perhaps not particularly diabetes friendly.

The diabetes friendly approach has more protein and only 30% net carbohydrates so it will have are more gentle effect on blood glucose levels.

With higher levels of fat from fish, dairy and eggs, the pescetarian approach is 40% fat which will be more gentle on the blood glucose levels of someone with diabetes.

2017-02-26 (10).png

comparison of essential micronutrients

This chart shows the nutrients provided by the vegan approach compared to the average of all the foods in the USDA database.  We get a lot of vitamin K, vitamin C and vitamin A but no omega 3 fatty acids and lower quantities of vitamin B-12.

2017-02-26 (12).png

This chart shows the nutrients contained in the diabetes friendly vegan approach.  While this approach has more fat and less carbohydrates the nutrient density is lower overall.

2017-02-26 (14).png

This chart shows the nutrient density of the pescetarian approach which is higher overall.

2017-02-26 (15).png

summary

So in summary, there are some great nutrient dense options for people with diabetes who choose to follow a plant based dietary approach.  Supplementing a plant based diet with some seafood will provide essential fatty acids and boost protein levels.

more information

If you’re interested in learning more about the nutrient density ranking system check out:

other approaches

The table below contains links to separate blog posts and printable .pdfs detailing optimal foods for a range of dietary approaches (sorted from most to least nutrient dense) that may be of interest depending on your situation and goals.   You can print them out to stick to your fridge or take on your next shopping expedition for some inspiration.

dietary approach printable .pdf
weight loss (insulin sensitive) download
autoimmune (nutrient dense) download
alkaline foods download
nutrient dense bulking download
nutrient dense (maintenance) download
weight loss (insulin resistant) download
autoimmune (diabetes friendly) download
zero carb download
diabetes and nutritional ketosis download
vegan (nutrient dense) download
vegan (diabetic friendly) download
therapeutic ketosis download
avoid download

If you’re not sure which approach is right for you and whether you are insulin resistant, this survey may help identify the optimal dietary approach for you.

image02

the most ketogenic diet foods

  • Ketosis occurs when glucose stores and insulin levels are low which causes the body to switch to the use of fat for fuel.
  • Our insulin response is related not just to carbohydrate, but also the protein and fibre content of our food.
  • This understanding can help us to prioritise foods with a lower insulin load that will help us improve our blood glucose control.

food insulin index

The initial research into the food insulin index was detailed in a 1997 paper An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods by Susanne Holt, Jennie Brand Miller and Peter Petocz who tested the insulin response to thirty eight different foods.

insulinindex

The food insulin index score of various foods was determined by feeding 1000kJ (or 239 kcal) of different foods to non-diabetic participants and measuring their insulin response over three hours.   This was then compared to the insulin response of pure glucose (which is assigned a value of 100%) to arrive at a “food insulin index” value for each food.

FII versus time chart.jpg

Considering how significant this information could be for people trying to manage their insulin levels (e.g. people with diabetes, “low carbers” or “ketonians”) I was surprised that there hadn’t been much further research or discussion on the topic.  I found a few references and mentions in podcasts, but no one was quite sure what to do with the information, mainly due to the fact that only a small small number of foods been tested.

more food insulin index data

Digging a bit further I came across a recent PhD thesis from the University Of Sydney titled Clinical Application of the Food Insulin Index to Diabetes Mellitus (Kirstine Bell, September 2014) which contained a more extensive list of foods that had been tested since the original study.

With this additional data perhaps we can make more sense of the various factors that affect insulin, the master regulating hormone of our metabolism?

In the chart below I have plotted the carbohydrates versus the insulin response of foods for more than one hundred foods.  Although insulin is loosely correlated with the carbohydrate content of our food, we can see that high protein foods such as steak, tuna and fish still require a significant amount of insulin.

2017-03-10.png

I ran some analysis on the data and found that we secrete about half as much insulin in response to protein compared to carbohydrate.  And we get the best correlation when we assume that indigestible fibre does not raise insulin.  Interestingly, fructose only requires about a quarter of the insulin as carbohydrate.

Once we account for protein and fibre we get a much better prediction of the insulin response to food compared carbohydrate alone.  People wanting to follow a low carb or ketogenic diet will want to eat foods that lie towards the bottom left of this chart.

image0152

[Check out this cool interactive visualisation of all the FII test data here.]

Using this understanding we can calculate insulin load of our food using the following formula:

insulin load = total carbohydrate – fibre + 0.56 x protein – 0.725 x fructose

We can also calculate the proportion of the energy in our food that requires insulin to metabolise (i.e. “the percentage of insulinogenic calories”).

image016

If you have the macronutrient details of food or a meal you can calculate the percentage  of insulinogenic calories using this calculator created by Dr Ted Naiman.

possible applications

Insulin is not bad at normal levels, but we are understanding more and more that excess insulin (e.g. hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes) is highly problematic, perhaps as much or more than high blood glucose levels.

Understanding how to calculate our insulin response to food could enable us to better manage our diet to avoid elevated blood glucose and hyperinsulinemia.

The biggest challenge for someone with Type 1 Diabetes (like my wife) occurs when you require a large dose of insulin to address a high blood glucose level that is caused by eating non-fibre carbohydrates and large amounts of protein.  It’s much easier to manage your blood glucose levels when the insulin load of your diet is lower (i.e. less non-fibre carbohydrates and moderate protein).

A more accurate understanding of insulin load can also help people with diabetes more accurately calculate their insulin dose or people trying to manage conditions like cancer or epilepsy through a therapeutic ketogenic diet.

For the rest of us who are somewhere on the insulin resistance scale, being able to calculate the insulin load of our diet will enable us to enable our pancreas to keep with our diet and maintain normal blood glucose levels.

the most ketogenic foods

Listed below are the most ketogenic foods.  I have included a number of other parameters that may be of interest:

  • energy density – foods that contain high levels of fibre and water have a low energy density (i.e. calories per 100g) and will tend to make us full with fewer calories.
  • percentage of insulinogenic calories – this is the proportion of the energy in the food that will require insulin to metabolise.
  • insulin load – foods such as non-starchy vegetables have a higher proportion of insulinogenic calories, but because of their low energy density will have a very low insulin load per 100g of food, meaning that you will need to eat a lot of that particular food for it to affect your blood glucose or insulin significantly.
  • net carbohydrates – these are the digestible carbohydrates that will affect your blood glucose levels and insulin that remain after you account for the indigestible fibre.

The amount you need to prioritise each of these parameters depends on a range of considerations including your blood glucose control and your weight loss goals.   Along with the insulin response to different foods, nutrient density and energy density are other important parameters we can use to optimise our food choices.

2016-07-06 (11)

The chart below shows the nutrients provided by the most ketogenic foods in comparison to the USDA foods database.  We can see that there are quite a number of nutrients that are less available in the most ketogenic foods compared to the average of the foods that commonly available.   While it is valuable to manage the insulin load of our diet it is also important to maximise the nutrient density of our diet as much as we can while still maintaining excellent blood glucose levels.

2017-02-27 (10).png

different foods for different goals

The table below contains links to separate blog posts and printable .pdfs detailing optimal foods for a range of dietary approaches (sorted from most to least nutrient dense) that may be of interest depending on your situation and goals.   You can print them out to stick to your fridge or add to your list for your next shopping expedition.

dietary approach printable .pdf
weight loss (insulin sensitive) download
autoimmune (nutrient dense) download
alkaline foods download
nutrient dense bulking download
nutrient dense (maintenance) download
weight loss (insulin resistant) download
autoimmune (diabetes friendly) download
zero carb download
diabetes and nutritional ketosis download
vegan (nutrient dense) download
vegan (diabetic friendly) download
therapeutic ketosis download
avoid download

If you’re not sure which approach is right for you and whether you are insulin resistant, this survey may help identify the optimal dietary approach for you.

image02

I have sorted the foods below by insulin load which will be useful if you are looking for foods to help you manage the insulin load of your diet.  If you’re interested, the most ketogenic foods article has these foods sorted by their proportion of insulinogenic calories.

Focusing on foods with a low percentage of insulinogenic calories will be useful if you are aiming for a high fat therapeutic ketogenic diet.  Focusing on foods with a low insulin load may be more useful if you want to lose weight and use some of your body fat for fuel.

the most ketogenic diet foods

eggs

Eggs are a staple for low carbers, ketogenic dieters and diabetics.  Not only are they nutritious they are also low in carbohydrates.

 Fried-Egg-Wallpaper-5

food % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g
egg yolk 18% 12 275
whole egg 30% 10 143
egg white 74% 9 52

The egg white is higher in protein and hence more insulinogenic.  At the same time the energy density (calories/100g) of the egg white is lower and hence the insulin load per 100g for the egg white is lower.

dairy

Some people believe that red meat and dairy are uniquely insulinogenic, however my reading of the food insulin index data is that there is nothing special about these foods that isn’t explained by their carbohydrate, protein and fibre content.

Dairy foods typically have a high energy density.  This is great if you’re a growing baby, an athlete trying to replenish energy or a bodybuilder trying to spike insulin for hypertrophy.  High palatability and high energy density are not a good combination if you’re trying to lose weight.

cheese

food % insulinogenic net carbs/100g insulin load  (g/100g) calories/100g
cream cheese 10% 4 8 348
cottage cheese 38% 3 9 93
ricotta cheese 25% 3 11 174
feta cheese 22% 4 14 265
Limburger cheese 18% 0 15 327
Camembert cheese 20% 0 15 299
brie cheese 19% 0 16 334
Muenster cheese 20% 1 18 368
blue cheese 20% 2 18 354
mozzarella 23% 2 18 318
Monterey 20% 1 19 373
cheddar cheese 20% 1 20 403
Colby 20% 3 20 394
Edam cheese 22% 1 20 356
Gouda cheese 23% 2 20 356
provolone 24% 2 21 350
Gruyère cheese 21% 0 22 412
goat cheese 22% 2 25 451
Swiss cheese 26% 5 25 379
parmesan cheese 30% 3 31 411

milk and cream

Milk has a higher proportion of insulin calories compared to cheese.  Butter and cream have a lower insulin load and proportion of insulinogenic calories.

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food % insulinogenic net carbs/100g insulin load  (g/100g) calories/100g
butter 0% 0 1 734
cream 5% 4 5 431
goat milk 40% 4 7 69
full cream milk 44% 5 7 65
low fat milk 58% 5 7 50
human milk 43% 7 8 71
reduced fat milk 59% 5 8 51

yoghurt

Full fat plain Greek yoghurt has the lowest percentage of insulinogenic calories while the sweetened and low fat options are extremely insulinogenic.

greek-yogurt

food % insulinogenic net carbs/100g insulin load  (g/100g) calories/100g
Greek Yoghurt 27% 6 9 130
plain low fat yoghurt 69% 7 11 63
skim milk yoghurt 86% 8 12 55
low fat fruit yoghurt 93% 19 22 95

fruit

It’s interesting to note that there are only a handful of fruits with a low percentage of insulinogenic calories (i.e. olives and avocados).  However some fruits like oranges have a lower insulin load because of their low energy density and therefore may not spike your blood sugar as much as dates or raisins which have a high proportion of insulinogenic calories as well as a high insulin load.  If in doubt, get a blood glucose metre and compare how much your favourite foods raise your blood glucose levels.

spanish-olives

food % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g
olives 3% 1 145
avocado 8% 3 160
blackberries 27% 3 43
raspberries 30% 4 52
strawberries 49% 4 32
apples 50% 7 52
gooseberries 52% 6 44
passionfruit 52% 14 97
apples 54% 7 48
pears 54% 7 50
boysenberries 54% 8 50
kiwifruit 55% 9 61
carambola 56% 5 31
blueberries 56% 9 57
blueberries 58% 14 88
watermelon 60% 5 30
jackfruit 61% 16 95
cherries 61% 9 50
mango 63% 11 60
pears 64% 7 42
cranberries 65% 8 46

vegetables

There aren’t many dietary approaches that don’t advise you to eat more vegetables.  It’s also hard to overeat non-starchy veggies because they have a very low calorie density and are high in fibre.  Again, due to the low energy density the net carbohydrates are low in a lot of the non-starchy veggies and hence won’t significant raise your blood glucose levels.

vegetable-03

food % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g
alfalfa 19% 1 23
chicory greens 23% 2 23
endive 23% 1 17
escarole 24% 1 19
coriander 30% 2 23
beet greens 35% 2 22
banana pepper 36% 3 27
mustard greens 36% 3 27
collards 37% 4 33
jalapeno peppers 37% 3 27
sauerkraut 39% 2 19
pickles 39% 1 12
cucumber 39% 1 12
zucchini 40% 2 17
red peppers 40% 3 31
chayote 40% 3 24
edamame 41% 13 121
radishes 43% 2 16
turnip greens 44% 4 29
summer squash 45% 2 19
arugula 45% 3 25
carrots 47% 5 37
parsley 48% 5 36
chives 48% 4 30
spinach 49% 4 23
artichokes 49% 7 47
soybeans (sprouted) 49% 12 81
Brussel sprouts 50% 6 42
lettuce 50% 2 15
asparagus 50% 3 22
celery 50% 3 18
bamboo shoots 50% 2 11
okra 50% 3 22
cauliflower 50% 4 25
broccoli 50% 5 35
turnips 51% 3 21
chard 51% 3 19
celery flakes 53% 42 319
dandelion greens 54% 7 45
Chinese cabbage 54% 2 12
red cabbage 55% 5 29
portabella mushrooms 55% 5 29
rhubarb 55% 3 21
cabbage 55% 4 23
shiitake mushroom 58% 7 39
snap beans 58% 3 15
yeast extract spread 59% 27 185
kale 60% 5 28
bamboo shoots 60% 5 27
turnips 61% 4 22
carrots 61% 4 23
potatoes 64% 26 158

nuts and seeds

Most nuts and seeds have a low percentage of insulinogenic calories though they have a higher energy density are possible to overeat.

food % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g
macadamia nuts 6% 12 718
pecans 6% 12 691
coconut cream 8% 7 330
coconut milk 8% 5 230
brazil nuts 9% 16 659
coconut meat 10% 9 354
sesame seeds 10% 17 631
hazelnuts 10% 17 629
pine nuts 11% 21 673
flax seed 11% 16 534
walnuts 13% 22 619
sunflower seeds 15% 22 546
almonds 15% 25 607
almond butter 16% 26 614
butternuts 17% 28 612
pumpkin seeds 19% 29 559
sesame butter 21% 33 586
pistachio nuts 22% 34 569
cashews 26% 40 580
coconut 34% 39 443
gingko nuts 52% 15 111
coconut water 66% 3 19

seafood

Seafood is a great source of essential fatty acids which are heard to find in plant based foods.

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food % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g
mackerel 14% 10 305
cisco 29% 13 177
caviar 33% 23 264
herring 36% 19 217
sardine 37% 19 208
anchovy 44% 22 210
trout 45% 18 168
fish roe 47% 18 143
sturgeon 49% 16 135
salmon 52% 20 156
tuna 52% 23 184
flounder 57% 12 86
oyster 59% 14 102
perch 62% 14 96
rockfish 66% 17 109
whiting 66% 18 116
halibut 66% 17 111
crayfish 67% 13 82
shrimp 69% 19 119
pollock 69% 18 111
white fish 70% 18 108
orange roughy 70% 17 105
haddock 71% 19 116
cod 71% 48 290
octopus 71% 28 164
lobster 71% 15 89
crab 71% 14 83
clam 73% 25 142
scallop 77% 22 111

animal products

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food % insulinogenic insulin load (g/100g) calories/100g
bacon 11% 11 417
bologna 11% 9 310
sweetbread 12% 9 318
liver sausage 13% 10 331
pepperoni 13% 16 504
blood sausage 14% 13 379
kielbasa 15% 12 325
knackwurst 16% 12 307
liver pate 16% 13 319
bratwurst 16% 13 333
frankfurter 17% 12 290
chorizo 17% 19 455
pork ribs 18% 16 361
beef sausage 18% 15 332
duck 18% 15 337
salami 18% 17 378
meatballs 19% 14 286
lamb rib 19% 17 361
turkey bacon 19% 11 226
pork sausage 20% 16 325
headcheese 20% 8 157
turkey 20% 21 414
beef brains 22% 8 151
pork sausage 25% 13 217
bologna 26% 11 172
T-bone steak 26% 19 294
lamb brains 27% 10 154

the Nutrient Optimiser

Building on the ability to quantify insulin load, nutrient density and energy density, more recently I have been developing a novel tool.  The Nutrient Optimiser reviews your food log diet and helps you to initially normalise your blood glucose and insulin levels by gradually retraining your eating habits by eliminating foods that boost your insulin level and blood glucose levels.

Once your glucose levels are normalised the Nutrient Optimiser focusses on your micronutrient fingerprint to identify foods that will fill in your micronutrient deficiencies with real food.

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If you still have weight to lose, the Nutrient Optimiser will focus on the energy density of your diet until you have achieved your desired level of weight loss.  Alternatively, the Nutrient Optimiser can help you if you were looking to increase your insulin levels for bulking or identify higher energy density foods for athletes.

It’s early days for the Nutrient Optimiser, but the initial results are very promising.

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Post last updated: April 2017