Balancing diet and diabetes medications

  • High blood glucose levels (glucose toxicity) and high insulin levels (hyperinsulinemia) are both bad news for your health.
  • The highest priority in the treatment of diabetes should be to reduce foods that require large amounts of insulin.
  • Over reliance on medications can lead to ‘learned helplessness’, meaning that people do not use a dietary intervention to what is primary a dietary disease.
  • Periods of fasting and intense exercise also improve insulin sensitivity.
  • A lower insulin load diet and improved insulin sensitivity will enable you to reduce and possibly eliminate medications.

when do you need insulin?

Last year I was tracking my blood sugars.  I was concerned with what I saw.

Based on my average sugars of about 6.2mmol/L my HbA1c would have been about 5.5%.  I wasn’t happy because I knew it was still well away from ideal. [1]  I knew that improving my blood sugars was likely the key to losing the weight that I had been struggling with.

In an odd sort of way I was jealous of my wife who has type 1 diabetes.  She could manipulate her blood glucose levels manually with her insulin pump, but I wasn’t sure what to do to bring my blood glucose levels down to more healthy levels.

Given that doctors will typically not give insulin until your HbA1c is greater than 7.0% [2] there was no way a doctor was going to prescribe me with insulin.  My doctor told me to lose some weight to combat the developing signs of fatty liver in my blood tests.

In January 2015 I found Jason’s Fung’s videos [3] and kicked myself in the butt.  Intermittent fasting seemed to do the trick to break the insulin resistance even though I had been following a lower carb paleo approach for a while.  I was able to get my blood sugars back down to an average of 5.4mmol/L to give me an estimated HbA1c of about 4.8% and in the process of actively trying to manage my blood glucose levels I lost ten kilograms.

Fasting and improving insulin sensitivity

Dr Jason Fung [4] has recently increased the focus on fasting and dietary intervention and discourages an over-reliance on insulin to manage diabetes.


Jason says that focussing on medicating the symptoms of diabetes rather than addressing the root cause of insulin resistance can lead to a ‘learned helplessness’ where people do not pursue a dietary solution to what is largely a dietary problem.

Addressing diabetes by giving insulin to address the symptom of high blood glucose levels is like giving an alcoholic alcohol to relieve the symptoms of their alcohol withdrawal. 

Meanwhile, Dr Richard Bernstein says that most of his type 2 diabetics need to remain on small doses of insulin in addition to minimising carbohydrate in order to achieve ‘normal blood sugars’.[5]


In this video Dr Bernstein however notes a number of negative consequences of taking exogenous insulin including:

  • inconvenience,
  • it can make you fat if you eat a lot of carbohydrate, and
  • it can cause hypoglycaemia (i.e. low blood glucose levels).

the balance between diet and medication

So how do we find the optimal balance between an over-reliance on exogenous insulin and medication while still achieving normal blood sugars?

Dr Ted Naiman of says that when he sees a new diabetic patient he checks their fasting insulin and C-peptide levels to understand whether they are still producing insulin or if their pancreas is already burned out.

If you don’t have access to these tests another option is to test your ketones and blood glucose levels to establish the ratio of glucose to ketones, which can also help you estimate your insulin levels (see the glucose : ketone index).

High insulin and high blood glucose means that you are insulin resistant (i.e. hyperinsulinemia).

Low insulin and high blood glucose means that you are insulin deficient and your pancreas is not producing enough insulin (i.e. type 1.5 diabetes, LADA).

Dr Naiman (pictured below – he practices what he preaches!) says he “avoids insulin like the plague” if at all possible, preferring to focus on diet, fasting and exercise.


Ted says that if you are still producing insulin but have high blood glucose levels the urgent need is to reduce the insulin load of the diet, start an exercise routine to improve insulin sensitivity, and ideally commence intermittent fasting ASAP!  If you continue to consume a diet with a high insulin load you risk burning out the beta cells of your pancreas at which point you will require insulin.

Ted has produced an excellent summary of intermittent fasting and the various ways to put it into practice that you can download here.  For more detail you also can check out Brad Pilon’s Eat Stop Eat or Jason Fung’s series on the topic.

the dangers of glucose toxicity

As discussed in the Diabetes 102 article there are a range of well-established risk factors for high blood sugars including accelerated brain shrinkage, cancer, obesity, heart disease and stroke.

This article from Jenny Ruhl’s Blood Sugar 101 lists a number of other complications related to high blood sugars including nerve damage, beta cell destruction, heart disease, diabetic retinopathy, and kidney disease.

Just in case you weren’t already aware… elevated blood glucose levels are very bad news!

If you want to be healthy, feel good, look good and live a long life, then your number one priority should be to do whatever it takes to achieve excellent blood sugars.

the dangers of insulin toxicity

I was interested to hear Professor Tim Noakes tell Robb Wolf in episode 273 of the Paleo Solution Podcast

You really want to keep your control through diet and minimal medication and never use insulin.

What I take this to mean is not that insulin is forbidden for people who need it, but rather that you should do whatever you can to not get to the point that you need to be injecting insulin to control your blood glucose levels.

Dr Fung points to the ACCORD Study[6] along with the ADVANCE, VADT and ORIGIN studies which showed worse outcomes for people with type 1 diabetes who targeted a lower HbA1c of 6.0% rather than a more typical 7.5%.

The figure below from the ACCORD study shows the reduction in HbA1c with intensive therapy (i.e. more insulin) to “successfully” reduce blood sugar levels.  What they found however was that the people in the intensive therapy group were 22% more likely to die (i.e. all-cause mortality) in spite of having ‘better’ blood glucose levels!


This may sound contradictory, because at the same time we know that reduced HbA1c levels actually lead to better health outcomes in the general population.  So what’s the difference?  Why are these studies suggesting that trying to normalise blood glucose levels are dangerous?  Is there something about people with diabetes that makes it unhealthy for them to have lower blood sugars?

There is plenty of debate on what these studies really mean, [7] [8] [9] however Dr Fung says it is the use of medication in the absence of dietary intervention that is making the difference.  Simply applying more insulin or other medications without addressing the diet is not only illogical it’s very dangerous!

This aligns with the data shown below[10] which shows that reducing HbA1c is highly beneficial when it comes to heart attack and stroke risk, however doing it through the use of antidiabetic medication does not help.


Ivor Cummings does a great job on his blog of highlighting a wide range of studies that demonstrate that insulin resistance is by far the dominant risk factor for heart disease. [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]  All we do when we medicate a high carbohydrate diet with insulin is to exacerbate the insulin resistance.

So is insulin all bad?  Not necessarily.  Insulin is important for a range of bodily functions including growth.  However, high levels of insulin to cover high levels of dietary carbohydrate is a recipe for metabolic disaster.

Rather than relying on insulin, Dr Fung recommends a low insulin load diet combined with periods of fasting to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce insulin and blood sugar levels.  Dr Fung told me that people need to “reduce both blood glucose and insulin to reduce glucotoxicity and insulin toxicity.”  He says a HbA1c of less than “6.0% is defined as normal, although the lower you get, the better. However, this only applies if you are using diet rather than medications.” [16]

two sides of the same coin?

Both Dr Fung and Dr Bernstein focus primarily on non-medical interventions which include:

  1. A low carbohydrate / low glucose load / low insulinogenic diet. I suggest you focus on foods from this list and meals from here to bring your blood sugars under control.
  2. Exercise will improve your insulin sensitivity and help to remove excess glucose from your system. High intensity short duration exercise is ideal along with regular movement through the day.  Rather than forcing yourself to exercise out of guilt you may find once you balance your blood sugars with diet rather than medication you have more energy and want to move more.
  3. Fasting is a great way to restore insulin sensitivity and reduce blood glucose levels naturally. It might be considered by some to be extreme, however it’s the most aggressive and effective approach to move the metabolic needle in the right direction.  And it’s not that hard, particularly if you’ve got a lot of weight to lose and you’re looking down the barrel of major health complications.

Bob Briggs does a great job of putting this into simple terms that are easy to understand and apply.

refining insulin levels for type 1 diabetics

For someone with type 1 diabetes balancing dietary insulin load with exogenous insulin is an ongoing process of fine tuning.

Getting the basal insulin dose is important, particularly if you’re following a reduced carbohydrate approach, as it can represent up to 80% of the daily insulin dose.  Unless you’re fasting you are unlikely to have a higher basal : bolus ratio than this.  Covering too much of your food with basal insulin can be dangerous if you need to skip or delay a meal for any reason (e.g. sleeping in on the weekend).

The scatter plot of blood glucose readings below shows my wife Monica’s blood glucose readings.  We use this data to review and refine her basal insulin rates (80% of her insulin dose) every couple of weeks.


While we are still on a journey, her blood glucose levels are the best they’ve been in her adult life and we’ve seen massive improvements since switching to a more nutrient dense low insulin load diet.

If her blood sugars drift up in a particular period of the day she will increase the basal rate on her pump in the two hours leading up to the point where the blood glucose levels are high.  Conversely, if there are a cluster of hypos (lows) at a particular point in time she will drop back the basal insulin leading up to that time.  Ideally we try to keep the high / low bars on the top chart on the red line, but not below it.

Her basal rates (shown below) are lower over night with a higher dose in the morning to cover the ‘dawn phenomenon’ which is the body’s way of supplying glucagon and adrenaline in preparation for the day ahead.


We’ve experimented with reducing basal insulin rates and running higher blood glucose levels to avoid lows and to reduce the overall insulin load.  However this hasn’t really worked as Moni just doesn’t feel good with higher blood glucose levels.

It’s a delicate balancing act between blood glucose levels and insulin load.  Your mileage may vary.  You’ll need to refine things based on how you feel and with what you are comfortable with.

It’s also a good idea to look at the data over a longer period to make sure you’re not just reacting to recent events.  Diet, hormones, stress, sickness and exhaustion all influence blood sugars and insulin requirements.

Knee jerk reactions to recent events can throw everything out of whack.  We’ve found it better to make small refinements rather than large changes.

Some female diabetics also refine their basal rates around their monthly cycle as insulin resistance typically increases by around 15% in the four days leading up to their period.  It’s worth tracking this and being ready to adjust insulin dosage.

the law of small numbers

The most important thing to know is that managing the insulin load of your diet is the most important thing you can do to improve blood glucose control.  If you have a high degree of variability in your blood glucose from hour to hour due to a highly insulinogenic diet you’ll never be able to bring blood glucose levels down without risking going too low.

Most endocrinologists will recommend against targeting optimal blood glucose levels due to the risk of hypoglycaemia (low glucose levels).  However reducing the insulin load of the diet will mean that the amplitude of the blood glucose swings are smaller, which will enable you to bring the overall average blood glucose level down using the basal insulin and smaller food bolus and correcting insulin doses.

Bernstein talks about the ‘law of small numbers’.  If you are consuming a high carbohydrate diet then you will need ‘industrial doses’ of insulin and there is no way to calculate the insulin dose perfectly, so the errors compound and the resulting blood sugar swings are out of control.  It’s the severe blood glucose swings that make you feel really bad, even more so than high or the low blood sugars alone.

adjusting insulin doses for type 2 diabetics

For the most part the observations from people with type 1 diabetes also apply to those with type 2 diabetes.  A type 2 diabetic can balance their dietary insulin load with the insulin produced by their own pancreas supplemented with insulin sensitising drugs such as Metformin or injected insulin.

The first priority when transitioning to a low carbohydrate diet is to avoid driving your blood sugars low with too much medication.   Rather than going low all the time it’s better to reduce your medications to a point where higher blood glucose levels will remind you that you need to manage blood glucose by controlling your diet.

If your medications are too high you will likely end up having to eat extra food to treat low blood glucose levels all the time.  So not only do you have more insulin than you want (which will stop you using stored body fat for energy) you have to eat more than you need because of excess medication (which will also get stored as fat).

It’s hard to give an exact target blood sugar range, however the following guidelines may be useful:

  1. Blood glucose levels less than 4.0mmol/L (73mg/dL) are typically considered low (unless you are young and / or have high ketone levels). If you are seeing these blood glucose levels you should decrease your diabetes medications.
  2. Post meal blood sugars should be less than 6.7mmol/L (120mg/dL). If you’re seeing higher blood glucose levels than this after meals then you shouldn’t eat what you just ate again.
  3. A fasting blood sugar of less than 5.0mmol/L (90mg/dL) and an average blood sugar of less than 5.4mmol/L (100mg/dL) is ideal.

Once you reduce your dietary insulin load (i.e. by reducing carbohydrates, moderating your protein and maximising high fibre foods) you will not require as much medication and may need to reduce your medications to prevent hypos (low blood sugars).

If your dietary insulin load reduces further you will be able to reduce, and possibly eliminate, your diabetes medications as your own pancreas is able to keep up with your decreased insulin requirements.

If you are able to further reduce your insulin load your blood sugars will come closer to normal levels.  With reduced insulin you will be able to use your body fat stores for fuel and ideally lose weight.

Depending on your goals and level of dedication (or OCD), you might get to a point where injecting small amounts of insulin is no longer worth the hassle.  This is something that you should work through with your doctor who prescribed the insulin and / or medications.


















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Marty Kendall

  • JW says:

    Thank you Marty you put so much work into this blog! I’m confused. As a former IR pre-diab junk food fatty with family history of T2, I LC’d my way down to normal weight, but now struggle with weird high PP BS’s despite LC (I never cheat on junk carbs, maybe too much milk in coffee). A recent test showed I was lowish on insulin (4), HA1c 5.6. perhaps this is the 1.5 type you mention above? Upping fats considerably, decreasing protein, some IF and cal reduction has fixed my high PP’s, my next blood test should be interesting. Do you have any good posts/links regarding 1.5 peeps? ( I’m scared of my pancreas burning out and I don’t know much more of what I can do).

    • Thanks JW.

      Your HbA1c is higher than optimal but not terrible (see Sounds like you’re doing all the right things to manage type 2 diabetes.

      It would be interesting to get your c-peptide checked and / or some more fasting insulin tests. You could also check your GKI using your BGs and ketones together (see If you have high blood glucose and high ketones it’s probably an indication your pancreas isn’t producing enough insulin to keep your blood glucose down.

      Bernstein would likely recommend low doses of insulin to get your glucose levels down to optimal levels. Could be interesting to see if a doctor will prescribe insulin given that your HbA1c wouldn’t be considered to be pre-diabetic.

      Best of luck!


      • Rene Tewksbury says:

        Marty, I found a doctor to prescribe insulin when my A1c was 5.4 and asked him to add insulin to my metformin to achieve Dr B’s recommended <5% to prevent complications. I started on a very small dose, but found over time I needed higher and higher doses just to maintain the 5.4. Unfortunately, I soon found myself on the insulin roller coaster despite maintaining a LCHF diet and ended up 10 years later with a fasting insulin of 68 and taking massive doses of exogenous insulin while achieving a "great" 5.7 A1c. In July of this year I discovered Dr Fung's protocol for reversing DM by addressing IR and decided to go for it. Remarkably, I responded with numbers in the 90s to low 100s within 3 days of stopping the insulin and metformin, and including IF. Within a month I was having FSBS results in the 70s-90s and had decreased my fasting insulin to 14. My insurance won't cover another fasting insulin for a few more months, but my BS and Ketonix results indicate I am well on my way to a normal level. My course on insulin exactly followed the scenario described by Dr Fung. I'm afraid those small doses of insulin aren't the answer for some of us.

      • Wow! Thanks for sharing that Rene.

        I wanted to tell both sides of the story because there are passionate people on both ends of the discussion.

        I think your n=1 is a warning that adding medication to achieve optimal blood sugars isn’t necessarily the solution for people with insulin resistance. Decreasing the insulin load (via diet and fasting) is the solution for people with insulin resistance.

  • Wow, again a fantastic article.

    I have been helping my Love and his glucose came down from 17 to 4.5 in 4 months with diet only. He is still on Glucovance, but because you explained the too much meds effect so well, I will gradually make his dinner time dosage lower to to prevent hypo glucose. Yippeee !

    Keep shining, Keep smiling…..

    Sarie Smith

    SKYPE = sarie.smith11

    084 25 85 618

  • Wenchypoo says:

    Marty, you had the same problem my husband is having now–his doctor won’t step in to help until his fasting BG is 140 or over. We’ve been fighting his very crafty pancreas for about 5 years now with LCHF, zero carb, various blood sugar-cutting supplements, experimenting with the Carb Nite Solution, and doing regular fasting of 12 hours between meals. It’s been no picnic, because once we think we’ve found the answer, his BG escapes control once again.

    Every day is a struggle to try to keep his numbers under 100 (except post-meal). He’s real good (in the 80’s) for a few days, then something comes along to undo it (and we cant figure out what). Then he rises until we try something new, and it’s lather, rinse, repeat. I’m rapidly running out of things to try, and may just HAVE to let him go until he gets the attention of his doc.

    It saddens me, but there it is. I’m even trying the tips and tricks you lay out here on this blog, thinking the Type 1’s might be able to help out a burgeoning Type 2–no lasting success there, either(so far).

    How could such a dodgy pancreas exist? It seems to evade everything we throw at it.

  • carmel says:

    Hi Marty
    Jason Fung is unreal isn’t he? I found him about 4 months ago after being told for 15 years that type 2 was incurable and degenerative. My A1c had dropped from about 12.7 (eek!) to 7.5 after a blood test I took three months after I found him, but I was feeling a bit stalled till I found your blog. You fill in a lot of the gaps that I think he’s not comfortable talking about without the being able to give personal medical advice. I love reading your blogs! They are never bad news, always hopeful. My progress has mostly been diet based but I am seriously thinking about giving fasting a go too, just to make a bit of a leap.
    Please keep the information flowing. It’s nice to be facing a future where I can anticipate improving, instead of getting worse.
    Your wife is legendary too! She’s going against nearly a century’s worth of conventional “wisdom’. It’s a leap of faith that will benefit many people in future. Way to go Moni!

    • Thanks so much for the encouraging words. I’m so glad that adding my observations have been helpful to people.

      It’s not always easy, but it’s great to have options to reverse the cause not just treat the symptoms.

      I’m hoping that this blog can contribute and move that discussion forward.

  • tim2000s says:

    Marty, we’ve had a few conversations before. Your observations are reasonable, but I think require an additional line of investigation relating to optimal balance in t1s. Excess protein leads to Gluconeogenesis and therefore additional insulin whilst LCHF seems to generate insulin resistance in T1s akin to the pizza effect, due to the requirement to deal with trigs, and this additional insulin. What is the optimal macro mix that minimises insulin and blood glucose levels and can this be transferred between individuals? How do you power the t1 metabolism whilst avoiding insulin toxicity?

    It’s probably worth making clear that intensive therapy in T2s to reduce the hba1c did not affect the cardiovascular outcomes of the studies mentioned, however only the ACCORD study showed an increase in mortality. Studies such as the ADVANCE study did see a reduction in nephropathy, for example. For t1s, intensive also means MDI and Pump therapy, plus additional testing and these have clear and documented benefits over twice daily insulin. The UKPS portion also saw benefits amongst those who had undertaken intensive therapy early on. There is a lot of discussion here:

    I think it’s fair to say that there is s lot of inconclusiveness relating to the reasons why these things happened and the implications that various well publicised MDs take from them.

    • Thanks Tim

      I really appreciate your input, wisdom and your experience, particularly on the Diabetes UK forum.

      Dealing with gluconeogenesis for type 1s is a particular issue. Too much protein and you risk messing up your blood glucose, too little and your risk being malnourished. I have written a fair bit about finding this balance point, particularly in the Goldilocks Glucose Zone article – . I will see if I can weave this back into the story in this article too given that it is a critical issue for people trying to optimise their blood glucose who have already reduced their carbohydrates.



  • […] balancing diet and diabetes medications  […]

  • […] For the rest of us that are insulin resistant to some degree it could help us choose foods that our pancreas can keep up with in order to avoid elevated blood sugars and reduce the need for insulin or other medications. […]

  • […] As the insulin load of your diet reduces you may need to keep an eye on your blood glucose to see if you will need to reduce your insulin and other medications. […]

  • […] with Type 1 Diabetes will carefully balance their carbohydrates and insulin doses throughout the day to try to keep their blood sugar within this narrow range.  However this tight blood glucose […]

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