Dr Greger’s How Not to Die Cookbook (review)

To celebrate the release of the How Not to Die Cookbook I thought it would be interesting review some of Dr Greger’s recipes to see how they stack up nutritionally.

Well presented

Firstly, I’ve got to give kudos on the layout.  Rather than wait for a hard copy to ship to Australia, I bought my copy on Apple iBooks and was impressed at how you could interactively explode the ingredients list to full screen on my phone.

This feature would be invaluable when actually using the book in the kitchen, especially on a phone where showing a full page of small text on a screen is impractical, and all you want to see is the ingredients from a distance.

Whole food

The recipes in the How Not to Die Cookbook are full of nutritious minimally processed whole food, which is a win for me.

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There are heaps of colour on the pages, which is indicative of the range of vitamins and minerals present in these minimally processed foods.

In the introduction, Dr Greger makes the critical distinction between a vegetarian diet (which could be filled with highly processed grains and sugars) and minimally processed plant-based whole foods.

Most of the issues with nutrition come when we overly process our food and make it shelf stable for increased profit margins.  Some of the recipes in the How Not To Die Cookbook call for some whole wheat bread, pasta, date sugar and the like, but generlaly, the recipes rely on minimally processed whole foods.

If you want quick and easy, this may not be the book for you.  Although there are headings of ‘easy’ and ‘moderate’ on the recipes, most of the recipes have a significant number of ingredients, including a range of herbs and spices.

You may have to gear up your kitchen with a range of new ingredients if you are not already following this way of eating.  However, for the experienced WFPB enthusiast who wants to add some flair and variety to their diet and dinner parties, this book is ideal.

Plant-based

In spite of being the Director of Public Health and Animal Agriculture for the Humane Society by day, Dr Greger doesn’t overtly focus on being vegan or vegetarian in the book.

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Unlike many others in this field, he doesn’t lead with animal welfare as the primary basis for his dietary appraoch.  In the introduction to the cookbook, he talks about his personal experience of seeing his grandmother’s life turned around by this way, under the guidance of Nathan Pritikin (pictured below).

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Greger is a self-confessed “nutrition nerd” who appears to find genuine excitement in unpacking the research to find links between different aspects of diet and their impact on health.  His Nutrition Facts YouTube channel has become viral and has become the primary resource for pre-processed nutritional inspiration for many.

Frame of reference

Nutrition is still an emerging science.  We seem to still be fumbling trying to understand the mechanisms, the cause and effect relationships of the food we eat on our health, well-being and longevity.

To deal with complexities of a topic like nutrition, we adopt a simplified frame of reference to help us navigate our reality without our mind exploding.  These simplified frames of reference are never perfect.  It’s also hard one frame of reference that explains everything perfectly.  Over time we strive to create new and more useful frames of reference that suits use best.[1]

Some example of different frames of references for nutrition are:

  • The Paleo frame of reference says we should eat foods that we evolved with.
  • The vegan frame of reference says we should eat foods that don’t harm other sentient life forms.
  • The hedonistic frame of references says, “if it tastes good, eat it.”
  • The cost frame of reference optimises for the lowest cost per calorie with minimal consideration of nutrition.
  • The Heart Association frame of reference believes that minimising fat, especially saturated fat, will help us avoid heart disease.
  • The conservationist frame of reference tries to eat in a way that we should eat in a way the minimise our impact on the environment.
  • The Seventh Day Adventist Church (who have a large influence through their food companies and medical evangelism) believe that they should eat plants and herbs (and not meat) because that’s how it was in the Garden of Eden.
  • The low carb/keto frame of reference suggests that minimising carbohydrates and maximising fat will lead to optimum health for most people.

As a doctor, Dr Greger relies on the medical research frame of reference.  He draws associations between different food properties and health outcomes and tries to develop a system that avoids the qualities of food that he believes to be dangerous.

While some people suggest that Greger cherry picks the studies and interprets the data to fit his plant-based perspective,[2][3][4] the research-based frame of reference is at least a refreshing contrast to the fear-based frame of reference in more militant vegan presentations (e.g. What the Health and Cowspiracy).

The Optimising Nutrition framework

Nutrient density

While I don’t call myself a Nutritarian, my frame of reference has a lot in common with Dr Joel Fuhrman’s focus on nutrient density.

Rather than focusing on foods to avoid I think we need to focus on foods that contain the nutrients we need.  By focusing on the things we need we automatically eliminate the things that aren’t good for us in excess.  Ultimately, I think we should focus on eating the foods that give us the nutrients without having to ingest too much energy to get those nutrients.

Dr Mat Lalonde’s take on nutrient density has also been a major inspiration.  Lalonde took Fuhrman’s ANDI and re-ran the analysis to consider only essential vitamins, vitamins, amino acids and essential fatty acids for which there are widely available data and some consensus on the minimum nutrient intakes.

The problem with Lalonde’s approach, though, is that amino acids are very easy to find in our food system, so the system ends up optimising for very high protein foods at the expensive of vitamins and minerals which can be harder to obtain in our food system.

Dr Greger is also a big fan of nutrient density as shown in this NutritionFacts.org video.

Rather than emphasising all nutrients, the Nutrient Optimiser algorithm identifies the nutrients that you are not getting in large quantities and identifies foods that will boost those nutrients.

cropped-2017-04-22-2.png

If you want to follow a particular dietary template (e.g. vegan, paleo, ketogenic, low carb, whole food plant based, pescetarian, vegetarian, bivalve vegan etc) the Nutrient Optimiser algorithm can work within those parameters to identify the most nutrient-dense foods.  However, the optimal nutritional outcome tends to be to simply focus on the most nutrient-dense foods available.

Insulin load

As the husband of someone who has had type 1 diabetes for three decades, I also see the importance of eating food that doesn’t require massive amounts of insulin to maintain normal healthy blood sugar levels.

There is value in managing dietary insulin load to make sure you don’t need massive levels of insulin to stabilise your blood sugar.  The food insulin index data shows us that our glucose response is proportional to the carbohydrate we eat.[5][6]image10.png

While our insulin response is related to the non-fibre carbohydrates minus about half the fibre.

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Energy density

And lastly, energy density can be a useful tool to help you moderate your food intake.

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This is another area where the WFPB approach shines in contrast to the low carb or ketogenic approaches, which can be energy dense and make it possible to overeat.

Without the use of added oils or a significant amount of processed grains and sugars, it will be practically impossible to overeat using only the meals set out in the How Not to Die Cookbook.

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Meals analysed

I chose representative meals from the various sections of the book.   If you click on the recipes listed below, you will see the meal entries in Cronometer.  If you want the photos and directions, you’ll have to buy the book).

●     portabellas and greens on toast
●     curried cauliflower soup
●     skillet sweet potato bake
●     white bean soup
●     spinach and mushroom black bean burritos
●     summertime oatmeal
●     whole wheat pasta with lentil bolognese
●     superfood breakfast bites
●     chocolate-cherry-banana soft-serve
●     morning oatmeal bowls
●     chocolate oatmeal

micronutrient profile

The figure below shows the nutrient profile of Dr Greger’s recipes in terms of nutrients provided as a proportion of the recommended daily intake.

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As you might expect, we get a ton of vitamin K1, vitamin A and vitamin C.  However, at the top of the chart, we’re not meeting the DRI levels of vitamin D and vitamin B12.

Nutrient score

The Nutrient Score is a relative comparison of the quantity of essential nutrients in our food.

If your diet provides twice the minimum level of nutrients, then we would achieve a perfect score of 100%.  This approach doesn’t reward massive amount of a small number of nutrients, but rather leads people to rebalance their diet so they can obtain a substantial intake of all the essential nutrients.

In his Perfect Health Diet, Paul Jaminet notes that “a nourishing, balanced diet that provides all the required nutrients in the right proportions is the key to eliminating hunger and minimising appetite and eliminating hunger at minimal caloric intake.”[7]  Similarly, studies by Dr Joel Fuhrman indicate that a nutrient dense diet will reduce cravings and provide satiety with a lower energy intake.[8]

Overall, the recipes from the How Not to Die Cookbook get a respectable Nutrient Density Score of a score of 79%.   For comparison, the lowest Nutrient Density score is 20% while the highest score to date has been 92%.

Macronutrients

The macronutrient split of the recipes is shown in the chart below.     While these foods are 70% carbohydrates, there are only 54% non-fibre carbohydrates once we subtract the fibre.

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Carbohydrates

As shown in the chart below of nutrient density score vs non-fibre carbohydrates (see this article for more detail), we can get a reasonable amount of nutrition with net carbs anywhere in the range of 0 to around 60%.  So, while not optimal, this level of non-carbohydrates in Dr Greger’s meals is not excessive for most people.  However if you already have diabetes it will likely not provide optimal blood sugar control.

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Fat

Similarly with fat at 14%, we’re still within an acceptable macronutrient range, although optimal nutrient density seems to align with around 40% fat.

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Protein

For the sake of analysis, I have run the Nutrient Optimiser report for a male who is 80 kg (176 lbs) with 15% body fat to achieve a maintenance energy intake of 2000 calories per day.  Dr Greger’s recipes provide on average 84 g of protein per day which equates to 1.2 g/kg lean body mass (LBM) or 1.05 g/kg total body mass per day.

Optimal protein is a contentious topic. However, we can say that the intake level provided by Dr Gregor’s meals would exceed the Adequate Intake level of 0.86 g/kg and is about equivalent to the recommended daily intake.[9]

Where things get murky is when we talk about the bioavailability of plant-based protein versus animal protein; however, Dr Gregor generally appears more concerned about not getting too much “animal protein” for longevity considerations.

I’m not aware of any research in humans that demonstrates that we live longer by reducing protein intake.  There is research in yeast and worm that shows that energy restriction and protein restriction causes slower growth and overall longevity, though the quality of life may be compromised.[10]

What appears clear is that having more lean muscle mass and lower levels of body fat is a good thing.[11]

To optimise your health and longevity you need to find the balance between excess growth and obesity versus being too frail and weak to be resilient as we age.

NF-Sarcopenia[1].jpg

As shown in the chart below, there is an optimal balance between growth and wasting.[12] Too much insulin and you grow to the point that you get complications of metabolic disease.  Too little growth and you become frail, lose your muscle and bone strength then you may fall, break your hip and never get up again.

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If you are lifting heavy and trying to build muscle, you may benefit from consuming at least 1.8g/kg total body weight.[13]

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And if you are dieting and trying to lose body fat, then it seems to be beneficial to have anywhere between 1.4g/kg total body weight (for a moderate energy deficit) and up to 2.6g/kg body weight (for a very aggressive energy deficit) if you want to preserve your lean muscle mass.[14][15]image7.png

Insulin load

Insulin load is the amount of the food in your diet that will require insulin to process due to the non-fibre carbs and protein.  This video from Dr Greger was one of the things that got me thinking about insulin load there three years ago and trying to put the pieces to.

While having plenty of vitamins and minerals (particularly potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium) from whole foods helps to improve blood sugar control by improving insulin sensitivity, so does lower levels of processed carbohydrates that tend to raise blood sugar levels.

Dr Greger’s diet would provide an insulin load of around 341g per day with 67% insulinogenic calories.   For those of you that are used to thinking in terms of carbohydrates, this is 294g per day of non-fibre carbohydrates.

Insulin load is actually quite closely correlated with nutrient density.[16]  While 67% insulinogenic calories is just inside the nutrient density envelope, such a high insulin load would be a problem for someone like my wife Monica who has Type 1 diabetes.

As discussed in the vegan vs keto for diabetes article, a whole food diet can provide benefits in terms of higher levels of beneficial nutrients to help with insulin sensitivity and generally means people eat less due to a lower energy density of fruit and vegetables, it seems to be the people on a reduced carbohydrate higher protein approach that has the best diabetes control.[17][18]

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Optimal nutrient density appears to align with an around 40% insulinogenic calories.  People who are already insulin resistant or who have diabetes should work to reduce the insulin load of their diet to the point that they can achieve stable blood sugar levels.

It is harder for someone not consuming any animal products or seafood to reduce their insulin load.  However, we will look at how someone following a WFPB diet can minimise their insulin load as much as possible.

Potential Renal Acid load (PRAL)

It’s also worth noting that Dr Greger’s recipes have a solid amount of alkalising minerals, notably:

  • calcium (207% of the DRI),
  • potassium (210%),
  • magnesium (269%), and
  • sodium (234%).

While I’m a proponent of getting adequate protein, I also think getting adequate minerals is critical to metabolic health, as well as muscle building.[19][20][21][22][23][24]

Some believe that avoidance of animal products is the most important parameter.  However, I think one of the major benefits of a WFPB approach over a grain-based diet (or even a typical ketogenic or low carb diet managing diabetes) is the fact that it gives you plenty of alkalising minerals, which serves to reverse metabolic acidosis which leads to diabetes.

Nutrient balance ratios

The table below shows the nutrient balance ratios of Dr Greger’s recipes.

  • It seems there are lower levels of zinc and higher levels of copper, which is a concern.
  • The potassium : sodium ratio is above 2 which is great.  However, I would have expected this to be higher given that Dr Greger actively avoids salt.
  • The iron : copper ratio is high due to higher levels of copper from the plant-based diet.
  • The calcium : phosphorus ratio is low due to the lower levels of calcium and higher levels of phosphorous.
ratios ratio target recommendation
Omega 6 : Omega 3 2.1 < 4 Omega 6 : Omega 3 ratio is good.
Zinc : Copper 3 8 – 12 Zinc : Copper ratio is outside limits.
Potassium : Sodium 2.3 > 2 potassium : sodium ratio is good
Calcium : Magnesium 1.8  < 2 calcium : magnesium ratio is good.
Iron : Copper 8 10 – 15 iron : copper ratio is within range.
Calcium : Phosphorus 0.9 > 1.3 calcium : phosphorus ratio is low.

Nutrients to prioritise

The aim of the Nutrient Optimiser is to help you rebalance your nutrients at a micronutrient level by identifying foods that will provide more of the nutrients that you are currently not getting in large quantities.

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The table below lists the nutrients that someone following Dr Greger’s diet would be getting less of relative to the other nutrients.  The right-hand column indicates whether we want to prioritise these nutrients.

While six of the thirteen less-available nutrients are amino acids, we will only prioritise the vitamins and minerals, given that Dr Greger has a range of videos warning of the perils of “excess” animal protein.[25]

nutrient % DRI prioritise
Vitamin D 17% yes
Cobalamin (B12) 26% yes
Leucine 101% no
Zinc 124% yes
Methionine 124% no
Lysine 157% no
Pantothenic Acid (B5) 174% Yes
Selenium 188% yes
Valine 192% no
Isoleucine 197% no
Tyrosine 199% no
Calcium 207% yes
Potassium 207% yes

Optimal foods – nutrient dense plant-based

The image below shows the plant-based foods that would provide the nutrients that are not being provided in large quantities by Dr Greger’s meals.  The food shaded in light green are vegetables, the foods in dark green are spices, brown ad nuts and seeds, grey are oils and pink are fruits.

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Optimal foods – most nutrient dense

Meanwhile, the image below shows the foods that would provide the harder to find nutrients without the plant-based constraint.  In this table, the cells shaded green are seafood, red is offal, blue is dairy.

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What I find fascinating here is that even though we did not prioritise any amino acids or essential fatty acids, the Nutrient Optimiser algorithm seems to rebalance the diet with more protein (50%), more fat (35%) and less non-fibre carbs (3%).

Optimal foods – diabetes-friendly plant based

Meanwhile, if we were trying to manage diabetes and insulin resistance, these are the foods that the Nutrient Optimiser algorithm would recommend to manage insulin load while also being nutrient dense and filling in the nutrient gaps in Dr Greger’s meal while also remaining plant-based.

image6.png

If we weren’t trying to avoid animal products, the foods listed below would provide the harder to find nutrients required with a lower insulin load.   It’s interesting that the system prioritised butter, cream and cheese to help reduce insulin load and rebalance micronutrients in Dr Greger’s recipes.

Most of the time when I have run the analysis for people following a low carb diet the system recommends much more nutrient-packed green veggies that are often neglected by people following a low carb or keto diet.  It’s interesting to see that for someone follow Dr Greger’s recipies it would recommend the opposite.

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Optimal meals

Where this gets really cool is when we use the same process to identify meals to boost the harder to find micronutrients.   The list below shows a selection of meals identified by the Nutrient Optimiser algorithm to fill the micronutrient gaps in Dr Greger’s meal plan.

●     Bootcamp Omelette
●     eggs, sardines, oysters and broccoli
●     spinach, mussels, sardines, eggs, sauerkraut
●     spinach, egg and oysters breakfast bowl
●     mussels, spinach, egg and sauerkraut
●     sardines, spinach and egg breakfast bowl
●     spinach, mackerel, peanuts and cheese
●     anchovies, spinach and egg breakfast bowl
●     oysters and salmon
●     Rhonda Patrick smoothie 1
●     mackerel, spinach, egg breakfast bowl
●     nutritional omelette 2
●     nutrient omelette 1
●     high cruciferous juice
●     cauliflower cream soup
●     green juice
●     lift day omelette

The chart below shows the nutrients provided by these meals.  Compared to the 78% provided by the meals from the How Not to Die Cookbook, these meals from the Nutrient Optimiser would provide an almost perfect score of 99%!

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The higher nutrient density provided by these meals will mean that you would need to consume less energy to get the nutrients you need, while also improving insulin resistance, mitochondrial function and overall energy levels with the higher levels of essential and nonessential nutrients from whole foods.

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If you’re interested, you can read Dr Greger’s full Nutrient Optimiser report here.

Summary

  • The recipes in the How Not to Die Cookbook are nutritious while remaining whole food plant based.
  • The protein content meets the recommended minimum intake levels. However, higher protein levels may be required to maximise muscle protein synthesis for someone who is active or wanting to maintain lean muscle mass while losing body fat.
  • The meals are relatively low fat but relatively high in non-fibre carbohydrate. While this level of carbohydrate is not excessive for someone who is metabolically healthy, someone who has diabetes may benefit from foods with a lower insulin load while also still maximising the nutrients that are provided by non-starchy vegetables.
  • We can use the Nutrient Optimiser algorithm to identify foods that contain more of these harder to find nutrients regardless of our preferred nutritional constraints.

 

references

[1]https://www.amazon.com/Win-Bigly-Persuasion-World-Matter/dp/0735219710

[2]https://deniseminger.com/2017/05/22/critical-review-of-michael-gregers-how-not-to-die/

[3]http://www.nourishbalancethrive.com/blog/2016/06/09/foodloose-recap-transcript/

[4]https://robbwolf.com/2017/07/03/what-the-health-a-wolfs-eye-review/

[5]https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/10/21/redesigning-nutrition-from-first-principles/

[6]https://optimisingnutrition.com/food-insulin-index/

[7]http://perfecthealthdiet.com/

[8]https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-9-51

[9]https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/protein

[10]https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/10/15/high-protein-vs-low-protein/

[11]https://optimisingnutrition.com/2016/03/21/wanna-live-forever/

[12]http://press.endocrine.org/doi/full/10.1210/jc.2011-1377

[13]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29182451/

[14]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29182451/

[15]https://www.dropbox.com/s/1if7n957u66htiy/10.1123%40ijsnem.2017-0273.pdf?dl=0

[16]https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/10/30/nutrition-how-to-get-the-minimum-effective-dose/

[17]https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/07/25/vegan-vs-keto-for-diabetes-which-is-optimal/

[18]https://optimisingnutrition.com/2015/08/02/standing-on-the-shoulders-of-giants/

[19]https://optimisingnutrition.com/2016/11/19/the-alkaline-diet-vs-acidic-ketones/

[20]http://suppversity.blogspot.com.au/2013/04/science-round-up-seconds-macro-mineral.html

[21]https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/diet-induced-acidosis-is-it-real-and-clinically-relevant/D7F03DFEF497996E90BB6DA487C777B8/core-reader

[22]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21481501

[23]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4935236/

[24]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16736444

[25]https://nutritionfacts.org/topics/animal-protein/

the Ketogains method

Ever wondered what foods and meals are optimal for fat loss and muscle building?

Ketogains’ Luis Villasenor recently put a call out for recipes for their upcoming Ketogains Boot Camp, so I thought it would be interesting to see what the Nutrient Optimiser had to say about optimal foods and meals that align with the Ketogains approach.

luis villasenor

The essence of the Ketogains approach is to:

  1. consume adequate protein,
  2. limit carbohydrates, and
  3. use ‘fat as a lever’.[1]

This article unpacks each aspect of the Ketogains system.

image34.png

Protein as a goal

The Ketogains macro calculator recommends a minimum protein intake of 0.8g per pound of lean body mass (LBM) (i.e. 1.8g/kg LBM), increasing to 1.0g/lb LBM (or 2.2g/kg LBM) on lifting days.

This protein intake level is more than would be recommended in a therapeutic ketogenic approach or even the average protein intake for the general population.[2] [3] It does, however, align with Steve Phinney’s recommended protein intake level for athletes and performance and represents a more optimal protein intake for active people.[4] [5] [6]

From a sports nutrition standpoint, more than 2.2 gram per kilogram of total body weight is regarded as “high protein”.[7]  This could be as high as 3.0g/kg LBM when fat mass is taken into account.  So, while the Ketogains protein recommendations might be considered high in therapeutic keto and vegan circles, the Ketogains recommendations would be ‘moderate’ in a sports nutrition and bodybuilding circles.[8]

This chart above (from Lemon, 1998[9]) shows that, for a strength athlete, muscle protein synthesis is maximised when they consume at least 1.8g/kg BW of protein.

image53.png

Protein intake even more important when you are trying to lose weight.  The higher the energy deficit, the greater is our need for protein to prevent loss of lean muscle mass.  If we are active and/or doing resistance training, then our requirement for protein is even higher again.  As shown in the chart below from a recent review paper by Stuart Phillips, muscle mass is best preserved best when we have higher levels of protein, particularly if you are targeting an aggressive deficit.[10] [11]  If you are targetting a moderate energy deficit (e.g. 10%) then a protein intake of around 1.5g/kg BW is appropriate.  However, if we are targetting a very aggressive energy deficit then higher levels, up to 2.6g/kg BW will be beneficial to prevent loss of lean muscle mass.  If we are active then we will also need more (dashed line) while we need less if we are sedentary (dotted line).

image37.png

While it’s actually difficult to consume such high levels of protein due to the satiety effect, more protein won’t turn to chocolate cake.  [12]

image16.png

Protein contributes to your energy intake.  So if your goal is fat loss, then you want to target the minimum effective dose of macronutrients and micronutrients.

As a general rule, a higher protein intake tends to lead to a better nutritional profile[13] and increased satiety.[14] [15]  Very high protein diets (i.e. above than 80% energy from protein) will likely rely on supplements and may minimise other foods that provide more vitamins and minerals.  As you can see on the far left of this chart, actively targeting a low protein intake can lead to a poor nutritional outcome.[16]

protein (%) vs nutrient density score [click to enlarge]
[note: If your goal is therapeutic ketosis for the management of epilepsy, dementia, cancer, Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s you will need to pay particular attention to ensure you get your share of micronutrients.]

Carbs as a limit

As you can see in the chart below,[17] you can get a reasonable level of nutrition if you consume anywhere between 0 and 60% of your energy from non-fibre carbs.[18]  However, with an exploding diabetes epidemic,[19] [20] [21] it’s probably fair to say that the majority of people would do better if they reduced their consumption of refined grains and sugars.

carbohydrates (%) vs nutrient density score [click to enlarge]
If you have already developed insulin resistance or diabetes, then reducing your carbohydrate intake to the point you achieve normal blood glucose levels is a good idea,[22] both in terms of overall health and controlling appetite that can be driven by excessive blood sugar swings.

Screenshot 2017-12-01 18.54.14.png

The fact that much of the population is already insulin resistant is likely part of the reason the Ketogains approach, with its limit on carbs, has been so successful.

image57.jpg

Low carbers are fond of saying “there is no such thing as an essential carbohydrate”.  However, unless you are focusing on getting lots of organ meat, shellfish, or fresh meat, you may benefit from consuming some non-starchy veggies to get your essential vitamins and minerals.

Twenty or thirty grams of non-fibre carbs doesn’t sound like much in the context of grains or sugars, but it can feel like a LOT of food to consume if it’s from non-starchy veggies.[23]

image62.png

Fat as a lever

So to recap before we get into discussing fat:

  1. Adequate protein is critical to support muscle growth and repair.
  2. Non-starchy veggies (which contain a small amount of non-fibre carbohydrates) provide vitamins and minerals (unless of course, you are eating heaps of shellfish, organ meat or drinking blood like the Maasai).

Recently, many people are swinging back from their fear of fat to embrace dietary fat again.  Carbohydrate is a more explosive fuel source for emergencies, while fat is a slower burning and more efficient fuel source.

While there are essential fats, we don’t require much to meet our minimum requirements of essential fats.[24]  Beyond this, where you get your energy doesn’t matter that much.

Many people do fine on a diet that obtains a lot of the energy from carbs while other do well on a diet that get the majority of energy from fat.  However, where things seem to go wrong is when people consume diet that is high in energy dense nutrient poor fat and carbs with minimal amounts of protein.

fat vs carbs.jpg

As you can see from the chart below, we can achieve a respectable nutritional outcome with a fat intake of between 10 and 65%.   More fat is not necessarily better, but very low-fat levels are not great either as they tend to have minimal amounts of protein and other essential nutrients.

fat (%) vs nutrient density score [click to enlarge]
If you are trying to reduce body fat, then maximising the nutrient density and reducing the energy density of your food is a worthy goal.  A protein sparing modified fast, an extreme version of this, provides adequate protein while limiting both fat and carbohydrates.

image31.png

If you are looking to gain weight, add muscle or perform extended feats of endurance exercise on a regular basis, it may be beneficial to load up on more energy dense foods.  However, conversely, if are not an endurance athlete but trying to use your body fat for fuel (like most of us these days living in a sedentary environment full of hyperpalatable food), you may want to wind your dietary fat intake back.

Micronutrients

Once you’ve worked out your macros using the Ketogains calculator and got the hang of using fat as a lever to manage energy intake, the next step is to ensure you are getting your share of micronutrients.

image24.png

Focusing purely on macros (e.g. Flexible Dieting, IIFYM, etc.) is short-sighted because it fails to consider micronutrients.  Chronic energy restriction without attention to micronutrients can lead to chronic nutrient deficiencies,[25] a lack of energy, increased hunger,[26] rebound bingeing due to cravings and even death.[27]

You’re likely aware that the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) trigger muscle protein synthesis and ensure you use the rest of the amino acids to build and repair your muscles.[28]  However, recent research has found that the amino acids arginine and lysine trigger satiety and hence we find foods that contain these amino acids more filling.[29] [30]

The chart below shows what your micronutrient profile would look like if you focused on branched chain amino acids (valine, isoleucine, and leucine) and the satiety-related amino acids (lysine and arginine) while also keeping carbohydrates low.

image59.png

While we get plenty of protein with this approach, we would not obtain the recommended minimum levels of a large number of the essential vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids.

As much as we like to focus on macronutrients (i.e. fat, protein, carbohydrates, fibre, ketones), micronutrients are arguably a more useful to assist us in our nutritional decision making.

Getting adequate minerals is especially important for:

  • avoiding the symptoms of the keto flu,[31]
  • reversing insulin resistance and minimising the amount of basal insulin circulating in your body,[32] [33] [34] and
  • maximising athletic performance.[35]

image7.png

The chart below shows what happens to our micronutrient profile when, in addition to BCAAs, we also prioritise foods that contain the harder to find micronutrients.  The purple bars represent the nutrients contained in the average of all foods in the USDA foods database while the blue bars represent the nutrients contained in the shortlist of foods.

nutrients - weight loss insulin resistant vs all foods.PNG

Optimal foods

In case you were wondering which foods will give you the most micronutrients while also having a lower energy density and fewer carbs, I have listed them below.

vegetables

  • endive
  • alfalfa
  • chicory greens
  • escarole
  • coriander
  • pumpkin leaves
  • asparagus
  • spinach
  • Chinese cabbage
  • lettuce
  • parsley
  • okra
  • zucchini
  • beet greens
  • watercress
  • arugula
  • portabella mushrooms
  • chives
  • chard
  • white mushroom
  • turnip greens
  • cauliflower
  • mustard greens
  • banana pepper
  • cucumber
  • pickles
  • sauerkraut
  • yeast extract spread
  • summer squash
  • radishes
  • broccoli
  • collards
  • shiitake mushroom
  • celery
  • artichokes
  • eggplant
  • cabbage
  • snap beans
  • turnips
  • red peppers

spices

  • basil
  • dill (fresh)
  • sage
  • marjoram
  • curry powder
  • thyme
  • caraway seed
  • mustard seed
  • dill seed
  • cloves

fruit

  • blackberries
  • avocado
  • raspberries
  • olives

seafood

  • salmon
  • sturgeon
  • halibut
  • fish roe
  • anchovy
  • crab
  • trout
  • caviar
  • crayfish
  • flounder
  • mackerel
  • sardine
  • oysters
  • mussel
  • rockfish
  • pollock
  • lobster
  • herring
  • haddock
  • perch
  • whiting
  • tuna
  • shrimp
  • white fish
  • cod
  • octopus

offal

  • liver
  • kidney
  • heart
  • brains
  • headcheese
  • brains

animal products

  • pork chops
  • pork shoulder
  • lamb
  • roast pork
  • pork loin
  • ground pork
  • pork ribs
  • roast ham
  • leg ham
  • sirloin steak
  • ground beef
  • chicken drumstick
  • chicken breast
  • veal
  • bratwurst
  • chuck steak
  • roast beef
  • ham
  • ground turkey
  • turkey
  • beef roast
  • lamb
  • ribeye fillet
  • bison
  • beef loin
  • ground beef

dairy & egg

  • whole egg
  • egg yolk
  • whey protein powder

You should ideally focus on the foods closer to the top of these lists.  But once you’ve eaten as much endive, alfalfa, liver and caviar as you can, feel free to move down the list to more energy dense foods or ones that you might enjoy eating more.

Supplements

If you can’t get enough nutrient-dense foods, it may be beneficial to use supplements.[36]  Keep in mind though, the nutrients from whole foods are likely to be better absorbed.

Too many minerals at once will ‘give you a dose of the salts’ and all your expensive supplements will end up in the toilet.  Whole foods are also more likely to contain other beneficial non-essential nutrients that come along with nutrient-dense foods.

What to track

“What gets measured gets managed”.[37]

But we can only manage a handful of things at a time.

“If everything is a priority, nothing is a priority.”

Rather than trying to track everything all at once you need to identify a few things to track to ensure you are moving towards your goals.

In the context of losing fat and gaining muscle the best things to track appear to be:

  1. weight/body fat,
  2. macros/calories, and
  3. performance (e.g. weight on the bar).

weight / body fat

Most people want to have more energy and look good naked.  While it’s much easier to track body weight, this ultiamte goal really about losing body fat.

There are a ton of different ways to measure body fat (e.g. DEXA, comparison photos, bioimpedance scales, Skulpt, the Navy Method, etc.).  They are all inaccurate to some degree.

You can do your head in focusing on the fluctuations on the scale or body fat from day to day.  But, you want to see your overall weight and body fat reducing toward your target levels.  People who successfully lose weight and keep it off manage their food intake, measure their weight regularly and are active![38] [39]

If you’re a fitness model you might want to measure yourself daily.  If you’re just starting to focus on eating well and lifting, then you might just want to weigh yourself weekly or monthly.[40]

If you are not moving towards your goals over the long term, something needs to change.

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But first, you need to set some realistic goals.  Take the time to determine your current and target body weight, fat (in kg and %) and lean body mass (LBM).

  current target
body weight (kg)
body fat (%)
body fat (kg)
LBM (kg)

If you are disciplined, it is possible to lose 1% of your mass per week, but 0.5% is a more realistic and less aggressive target.  If you are already lean, then it will be harder to lose fat without losing muscle so you may need a less aggressive deficit.[41]

It’s not all about the weight on the scale.  You can be losing fat and gaining muscle, the weight on the scale probably is the most reliable indicator that you’ve got your inputs right.  If you’re getting enough protein and working out, incrased muscle mass should be looking after itself, and any loss should be mainly fat.[42]

Keep in mind that body weight is a lagging measurement that tells you whether you’re on the right track.  Tracking inputs (e.g. food intake and exercise) will be much more useful.

macros / calories

Personally, I don’t enjoy tracking my food, so I’ve designed a range of food lists and meals that will help most people improve from where they currently are.  It will be pretty hard to get/stay morbidly obese if you eat only the foods and meals listed above.

But eating to satiety won’t guarantee you will lose weight.  If you want to look like a fitness model, or you are not getting your desired results from ‘eating ad libitum’ you will likely need to track your food to overcome your inbuilt impulse to maintain a higher body weight and prepare for a possible famine ahead.

Tracking your food in an app like Cronometer can be a useful educational experience.

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The Ketogains calculator will give you a starting point in terms of calorie intake based on your current weight and activity levels.  If, after a few weeks, you are not seeing the progress you were hoping for you will need to adjust your inputs.

Performance/weight on the bar

Building muscle or achieving a performance goal is probably more important than weight loss, particularly if you are not trying to get down to a very low level of body fat.

The great thing about using a performance goal is that it is both a leading and lagging measure.  By going harder, faster and heavier you are providing a greater stimulus for growth.  And by measuring your performance outputs, you are ensuring that you are getting fitter/faster/healthier.

While being strong doesn’t guarantee weight loss, being stronger will improve your metabolic health, insulin sensitivity and ability to burn fat more effectively than nearly anything else.

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Having more lean muscle mass will ensure you burn both glucose and fat more efficiently.  Lean muscle mass is a key predictor of longevity.[43]

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The Ketogains boot camp uses a 5×5 strength progression.  The Stronglifts 5×5 or Starting Strength uses a similar progressive overload approach.  These programs involve compound lifts (squat, deadlift, bench press, overhead press, row etc.) and progressive overload meaning that you add weight to the bar each time and continue to get stronger.   By doing this, you train your body to produce energy more efficiently.

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Don’t be surprised if your appetite ramps up during the first few months of intensive lifting as your body goes into anabolic overdrive to recover and build new muscle.  This should settle down though after a while, and you can then focus on dialling your diet in if you want to gain strength as well as lose body fat.[44]  You have a unique window of ‘newb gains’ during initial whne you can get stronger at in a way that you may never achieve again.  You can focus on getting to single digit body fat later.

Other stuff that you could track

There are other things that you might like to track, but they will be less useful than the things mentioned above.  Most people have limited time and don’t really want to live a completely quantified life.  Unless this is your only hobby or you are a professional athlete or fitness model, you may quickly hit ‘analysis paralysis’ and give up.

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There is no guarantee that technology will help you reach your goals.  In fact, it seems that you are more likely to gain weight if you use wearables like a Fitbit.[45]  It’s hard to know whether this is due to the EMF or perhaps the wearer is always allowing themselves to consume the extra calories that their technology told them that they just burned with exercise.

So, coming from a biohacker nerd….  don’t try to track too many things at once!  OK?

Heart Rate Variability

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a measure of the variability between your heart beats.  If you are stressed and/or exhausted your heart will be more rhythmically as well as more rapidly.   If you are relaxed and well rested your heart will be more to stresses and quickly return to rest.

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Measuring your Heart Rate Variability (HRV) can tell you if you’re pushing too hard and need to rest recover or you’re not pushing hard enough and should be working harder to maximise your progress.  Training when you are burning out can be counterproductive and lead to injury or under recovery.

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HRV tells you whether your sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system is balanced.

  • If you are “parasympathetic nervous system dominant” you might be overstressed from too much activity, not enough sleep, too much caffeine or work stress.
  • If you are “sympathetic nervous system dominant”, then it probably means your body wants to rest. You’ll probably do better if you listen to it and let it recover.
  • If your overall HRV is dropping, it means you are burning out and should consider slowing down.

After 1.5 years of measuring my HRV each morning, it’s uncanny how many times I will see my HRV fall a few days before you get the flu or hit the wall.  I don’t like to stay still long enough to meditate, so tracking each day with Elite HRV is part of my relaxation, breathing and focus at the start of each day.

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Blood sugar

Your blood sugar and glucose control is a powerful indicator of metabolic health.  But blood sugar readings can vary depending, not just due to the food you eat or your metabolic health, but also exercise and stress.

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If you have diabetes, then refining your food choices to normalise your blood sugars is critical. However, regular blood sugar tracking is likely a waste of time and money for most people who are following a Ketogains style approach (i.e. tracking their food to ensure they are moving towards an optimal weight, getting adequate protein and lifting regularly) is unnecessary.

Blood ketones

Unless you require therapeutic ketosis to help manage epilepsy, cancer, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s measuring your blood ketones is also largely an irrelevant distraction.

Lots of people get caught up chasing ‘optimal ketosis’ by eating more dietary fat and less protein.  However, this is exactly the opposite of what you need to gain strength and lose body fat.

Blood ketones do increase when we don’t eat. But high ketone levels don’t mean you are burning your own body fat.  It could just be the three Bulletproof coffees and exogenous ketones you just had to get that are driving your high ketone levels.

Some people, especially those who are physically fit and/or have been practising a low carb diet for a long time, seem to have lower blood ketone levels, even if they are eating a ‘ketogenic’ diet.  It’s hard to know whether this is due to the more efficient use of ketones or the fact they are burning more fat through non-ketogenic pathways.

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Ketones are just one of a number of ways that we burn fat (chart from Dave Feldman)

Someone who is not so metabolically healthy can load up on exogenous ketones, butter and MCT oil and get a high blood ketone reading on their meter.  But this may just mean that they have eaten a lot of fat that they are not burning (because of their lack of activity and/or poor metabolic health) and the fat is backing up in their bloodstream.

A healthy metabolism seems to keep the total energy circulating in the bloodstream fairly low (i.e. from glucose, ketones or free fatty acids).  If you are metabolically healthy, you can easily access your fat stores so you don’t need to build up high energy stores in the blood.  By contrast, someone with a less healthy metabolism seems to maintain higher energy stores in the blood (i.e. glucose, ketones, free fatty acids) as well as on their body.[46]

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This chart shows more than 3000 data points of blood glucose and ketones together from a range of people following a low carb and ketogenic diet.  Having high blood ketones and high blood sugar at the same time is not good!  Healthy people tend to have lower blood sugar and moderate level ketones.

Most people don’t need to worry about their blood glucose and ketone levels consciously.  If you focus on nutrient dense food to optimise your mitochondrial function and strength building to keep pushing your mitochondria to produce energy at peak efficiency, then your body will probably look after the rest.

[At the risk of getting too technical, it’s worth pointing out that blood ketones rise because there is a lack of Oxaloacetate (from protein and carbs) available to burn Acetyl CoA from fat in the Krebs cycle, so the body defaults to a starvation protocol to produce ketones (AcetoAcetate). 

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Figure from Amy Berger showing how fat can be burned in the Krebs cycle or via ketosis when there is not enough Oxaloacetate from protein and carbs turn the Krebs cycle.

If your NAD+ is low, AcetoAcetate will not be converted to Acetone so there will be lots of beta-hydroxybutyrate left in the blood to be measured on your meter.  So, other than fasting and/or exercising to deplete your liver glycogen levels, one ‘hack’ to achieve high blood ketone is to avoid protein and eat a nutrient-poor diet low in niacin and other B vitamins (which produce NAD+).  But don’t try this at home.  It’s not a recipe for optimal health, just high blood ketone levels.]  

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Ketogains’ Tyler Cartwright has lost nearly three hundred pounds without exceeding 0.4mmol/L blood ketones on his ketone metre (other than that time he ate nothing but lard for two weeks as an experiment and got to 0.5mmol/L).[47]

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Breath ketones

Breath ketones are an interesting indication of your metabolic health.  But again, they’re not necessary if you are already focusing on a nutrient-dense diet without too much energy and plenty of activity.

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Waist measurement

BMI is often used to assess whether or not someone is at a healthy weight.

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However, BMI is notoriously problematic for people with more muscle.

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Waist to height ratio is a much better predictor of the years of life that you will lose due to your poor health.[48]

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Micronutrients and nutrient score

Focusing on the nutrient-dense whole foods above and the meals below will get you most of the way to optimal nutrition.  However, you can also track your macronutrients in Cronometer to help you identify the nutrients you are not getting from your diet.

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But then, once you’ve tracked your food in Cronometer, you are left wondering what foods and meals you should eat.  and if need to supplement, how much of each supplement do you require and how much?

The Nutrient Score is a measure of the micronutrient quality of your diet.  If you were able to get two times the recommended daily intake of all the essential micronutrients, you would get a perfect score of 100%.

To demonstrate what this looks like in practice, Ted Naiman’s diet got a very respectable nutrient score of 70%.

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Luis’ got 72%.

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Nutrition nerd Alex Leaf (and regular reviewer of my blog posts… thanks so much Alex!!!!) scored an impressive 74%.

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Mike Berta also scored 74%.

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Brianna Theroux’s scored a very healthy 79%.

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And sitting at the top of the leaderboard is Dr Rhonda Patrick with a score of 82%.

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But the coolest competition is against yourself.  Andy Mant managed to seriously up his nutritional game…

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… by eating a LOT of nutrient-dense seafood…

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… in preparation for his Paris wedding.

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By following the recommendations of the Nutrient Optimiser analysis, Robin was able to improve her nutrient score to 32% (junk food diet) to 68% over a number of iterations (see report 1, report 2 and report 3).

In the process, she was able to significantly improve her blood glucose levels, dropping her HBA1c from 10.6% to 6.4%.  Robin was also able to progress from taking hundreds of units of insulin per day to only needing occasional correcting doses to fine tune her blood sugars.  She also managed to lose 2.6lbs per week!

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And after a couple of rounds of following the Nutrient Optimiser recommendations and a couple of Ketogains boot camps the Matt Standridge (aka The Ketodontist) has stepped up from a nutrient score of 48% to 73%.  He says he is feeling great and continues to gain muscle and lose fat.

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The Nutrient Optimiser

While there are common themes, each person’s micronutrient fingerprint is unique.  The optimal foods and meals that will balance your micronutrient profile are unique to you.  The Nutrient Optimiser is the only tool that will tell you what foods are ideal to balance your diet while also aligning with your goals.

Currently, the Nutrient Optimiser is a manual report that will help you optimise your nutrition from the micronutrients based on your food log in Cronometer.  We’re working hard to develop an automated system that will use your goals and whatever data you have to help you refine your nutrition to achieve your goals.

If you don’t want to track your food, the system will tell you what meals and foods will align with your goals.  But if you want to step up your game and provide other data we can work with that to further refine your nutritional prescription to fill in your micronutrient gaps.  The system will also adapt with you to improve your nutrition, ideally from diabetic to weight loss to achieving your performance goals.

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It might just be your secret weapon to help you blitz #transormationtuesday.

Summary

  • The Ketogains protocol involves getting adequate protein (to support muscle growth and recovery) and adequate carbs to get essential vitamins and minerals. Fat is used as a level to manipulate energy intake to suit your goals.
  • If you are limiting your energy intake, maximising your nutrient : energy ratio is critical!
  • The Nutrient Optimiser can help you identify foods and meals that align with your goals and fill in your micronutrient deficiencies.
  • Chose what you track wisely. Trying to manage too many things can lead to ‘analysis paralysis’.  If you manage the most important inputs, results should naturally follow.

 

 

Meals

I’ve been building a database of to help identify the meals that provide you with the nutrients you need more of and align with your goals.

If you are tracking in Cronometer, you can sign up for a Nutrient Optimiser analysis and report here to find out which foods and meals will help you move forward.  I’ve also been working with Alex from Nutrient Hero for the past few months building a massive database of recipes we can use to optimise your nutrition.

It feels like it’s been a long time coming, but it won’t be too long before it’s all automated and online.  If you want to be the first to trial the beta version then make sure you enter your email in the pop on this page or head over to NutrientOptimiser.com now to learn more.

The recipes below are some of the highest ranking when we prioritise some of the harder to find vitamins and minerals (potassium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, vitamin D, thiamine and choline) as well as higher protein and a lower energy density.

I have included the link to the Cronometer entry as well as the nutritional profile and a list of foods that will help you balance the nutritional profile of the recipe.

Bootcamp omelette

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Gayle Louise created this simple omelette recipe for her Ketogains boot camp workout days.   Nutritional yeast has a fantastic nutritional profile and adds a cheesy taste without the calories, minimising fat and maximising nutrient density.

ingredients

method

  • cook the spinach first with ghee or butter.
  • whisk 4 eggs with salt and pepper and add too cooked spinach
  • sprinkle with nutritional yeast, cover and cook until firm.

Facebook

Cronometer analysis

https://nutrienthero.com/recipe-analysis/boot-camp-omelette

 

Potassium salted caramel coffee

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Everyone loves coffee, and most people find potassium harder to get in their diet than sodium.  So why not potassium coffee?!?!  The milk and caramel syrup are not essential, but they give you that indulgent salted caramel taste.

Getting adequate minerals is critical to ensuring insulin sensitivity, nutrient partitioning, muscle building and recover and avoiding diabetes.

While most people don’t need to worry about getting too much salt, having a potassium : sodium ratio greater than two is hard to achieve for most people, even if they do eat a lot of greens.

My friend Raymund Edwards of Optimal Ketogenic Living has been doing a LOT of research into the wide-ranging benefits of alkalising electrolytes, in particular, potassium.  This recipe was inspired by Raymund after hearing that he was adding potassium to his coffee.

Raymund said, “A potassium enriched coffee in the morning really wakes the muscles.  It’s better than any warm up.  Loose and alive we can feel the difference as they soak up actively the potassium especially after the night fast (where muscles have been releasing potassium).  And  the coffee in my view tastes so much better too.”

It’s hard to get a significant amount of potassium from tablets as they are limited to 99 mg which is only a fraction of the 3,800 mg of potassium that we need each day (you would need to take forty tablets to get the DRI for potassium!).

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You can also add the potassium citrate powder to your drinking water, coffee or pre-workout mix.  You would need more than 10g of the citrate powder to get your recommended daily intake of potassium, but, like all things, start slowly. However, in time, it might just make you feel amazing!

ingredients

method

  • Pour coffee shot from fresh grounds
  • Add potassium citrate powder
  • Add caramel syrup (optional)
  • Add a dash of full cream milk to taste (optimal)
  • Add hot water to taste (depending on how you like your coffee)

Cronometer analysis

nutritional analysis

 

Greens + eggs + seafood

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Dom D’Agostino infamously told Tim Ferriss in his sound check that his breakfast was sardines, oysters, eggs and broccoli.  It might sound bizarre, but it packs a nutritional punch.

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Most days my breakfast is some variant on frozen greens (spinach, broccoli, kale) + eggs + seafood (sardines, mackerel, oysters, mussels, anchovies) + nutritional yeast.

If you’re not focusing on losing body fat you can add cheese or peanuts for some extra indulgent taste, but leaving these out will help you increase your protein : energy and nutrient : energy ratio which is ideal if you are trying to lose body fat (and will make Ted Naiman and Luis Villasenor proud).

You could take more time to fry these ingredients up and plate them up nicely, but most of the time breakfast only needs to be time efficient and doesn’t need to look good.  If you can start the day with a high protein nutrient dense breakfast, you’ll be less likely to succumb to other cravings later in the day.

ingredients:

  • 250g frozen veggies. Spinach is always best, but broccoli or kale work too.
  • Three eggs. Consider removing the yolks if you are focussed on lower fat higher protein fat loss phase, though this will decrease the overall nutrient profile.  The yolk is where all the vitamins and minerals are!
  • 1 can of seafood (e.g. mackerel, sardines, oysters, mussels or anchovies).
  • 1 teaspoon of nutritional yeast
  • Peanuts (optional, only if not looking to lean out)
  • 1 oz mozzarella cheese (optional, only if not looking to lean out)
  • Salt (No Salt, Celtic Sea or Redmond Real Salt) & pepper to taste.

method

  • Defrost greens in bowl for five minutes in the microwave.
  • Add eggs and cook for a further minute or until done. (I often find that the eggs need a bit more cooking but stir everything in at around three minutes and then cook for another two minutes).
  • Add other ingredients
  • Salt liberally to taste.

Nutritional analysis

Cronometer entry

Photos of other variants (hey, they ain’t pretty, but they work).

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Bacon, egg, spinach and mushroom

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This is a variant on the common bacon and eggs recipe. The spinach mushroom and tomato round out the nutritional profile of the stock standard bacon and eggs.

The spinach provides a wide range of vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin K and vitamin A.  Most people think kale is the ultimate nutrient-dense green vegetable.  However, kale just has a lot of Vitamin K1 and not so as much of everything else.  Spinach has a much better nutritional profile across the board.

If you are focusing on reducing body fat and maximising nutrient density, consider eliminating the cream, draining the bacon fat and keeping the butter to a minimum for cooking.  If your goal is bulking and recover, then you can be more liberal with the cream and cheese to taste.  Remember, fat is a lever.

ingredients:

  • 3 large eggs
  • 200g fresh spinach
  • 2 mushrooms
  • 30g cream (optional)
  • 30g mozzarella cheese (optional)
  • butter
  • Salt (No Salt, Celtic Sea or Redmond Real Salt) & pepper to taste.

method

  • Fry bacon separately. If your priority is reducing body fat then you can let the bacon rest on a paper towel to drain the fat.  Alternatively, bacon grease can be used to fry the spinach, mushroom and eggs.
  • Fry eggs separately.
  • Add cream and cheese if not looking to lean out.
  • Salt to taste.

Nutritional analysis

Cronometer entry

 

Steak, egg, tomato, avo spinach and lettuce

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This is a fairly standard Sunday night family dinner at our place.  A solid piece of steak on the BBQ with salad.

ingredients:

method

  • Grill BBQ steak
  • Cook spinach with some butter or coconut on BBQ plate when grilling the steak.
  • Serve with boiled egg (or fried on the BBQ) along with salad (avocado, tomato and lettuce shown here).
  • Salt (No Salt, Celtic Sea or REdmond Real Salt) & pepper to taste.

Facebook

Nutritional profile

Cronometer

 

Be sure to check out the more than 300 meals on the Nutrient Optimiser Facebook Group.  You might even want to add some of your own.

 

 

 

references

[1] https://ketogains.com/2017/06/energy-balance-macros-nutrient-density/

[2] https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5304a3.htm

[3] http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)32252-3/abstract

[4] http://www.artandscienceoflowcarb.com/the-art-and-science-of-low-carbohydrate-performance/

[5] https://www.amazon.com/Art-Science-Low-Carbohydrate-Performance/dp/0983490716

[6] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GkQYZ6FbsmI

[7] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/10/15/high-protein-vs-low-protein/

[8] https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0201-z

[9] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9841962

[10] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29182451/

[11] https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.dropbox.com%2Fs%2F1if7n957u66htiy%2F10.1123%2540ijsnem.2017-0273.pdf%3Fdl%3D0&h=ATNppfskJJ6fMuIVoJrC0rX_8H9KCT2SeryF0MeRrAnJz6X9p_3FPhPYUK3RGSOE-kDTeOLxKdw26vel3zBWDbOlaCQzxkxpDU8CjFs9Moo51fC9NByHYvs83uU7PvjFolOxvqx3Pw

[12] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/06/03/why-do-my-blood-sugars-rise-after-a-high-protein-meal/

[13] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/10/30/nutrition-how-to-get-the-minimum-effective-dose/

[14] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15836464

[15] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24588967

[16] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/10/30/nutrition-how-to-get-the-minimum-effective-dose/

[17] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/10/30/nutrition-how-to-get-the-minimum-effective-dose/

[18] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/10/30/nutrition-how-to-get-the-minimum-effective-dose/

[19] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-diabetes/cost-of-diabetes-epidemic-reaches-850-billion-a-year-idUSKBN1DD2SW

[20] http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/the-true-cost-of-diabetes-and-preventing-it/

[21] http://www.diabetes.co.uk/cost-of-diabetes.html

[22] https://optimisingnutrition.com/tag/insulin-load/

[23] https://www.dietdoctor.com/low-carb/20-50-how-much

[24] https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/fats-total-fat-fatty-acids

[25] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17593855

[26] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2988700/

[27] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2017/06/17/psmf/

[28] https://metabolicnutrition.com/branched-chain-amino-acids-bcaas-benefits-for-muscle-growth/

[29] https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/09/170927093254.htm

[30] http://suppversity.blogspot.com.au/2013/09/the-satiating-secret-of-arginine-lysine.html

[31] https://ketogains.com/2017/06/keto-flu-electrolyte-imbalances/

[32] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21036373/

[33] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC301822/

[34] https://diabetesmealplans.com/6285/magnesium-and-diabetes-type-2/

[35] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22150427

[36] https://ketogains.com/2016/08/ketogains-seven-must-supplements/

[37] https://athinkingperson.com/2012/12/02/who-said-what-gets-measured-gets-managed/

[38] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24355667

[39] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Weight_Control_Registry

[40] http://www.nourishbalancethrive.com/podcasts/nourish-balance-thrive/keto-masterclass-robb-wolf/

[41] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15615615

[42] https://www.bodyrecomposition.com/muscle-gain/calorie-partitioning-part-1.html/

[43] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2016/03/21/wanna-live-forever/

[44] https://startingstrength.com/articles/clarification_rippetoe.pdf

[45] https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2553448

[46] https://optimisingnutrition.com/2015/07/20/the-glucose-ketone-relationship/

[47] https://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjpo5y5qu_XAhWHFpQKHV8VAXgQFggvMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fketogeek.libsyn.com%2F14-tyler-cartright&usg=AOvVaw04xLzYxE3tS8oa8LWvLkZk

[48] http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0103483