Bruce’s breakfast

This is a picture of a typical LCHF breakfast of a mate of mine who has managed to lose about 12kg over the past few months by eating this sort of fare for breakfast.

He says if he has this he’s full for the morning and is much less likely while driving to pull into a servo to buy junk. It takes a little bit longer than a bowl of cereal to prepare but it’s part of his meditative morning routine that he’s grown to enjoy.

A good range of nutrients and amino acids even though the protein is quite low.

It’s got 16% insulinogenic calories, which is pretty good.

If you wanted to reduce the insulin load further you could cut down on the tomato, but at the same time there are only 12g net carbs per 500 calorie serving, and the tomatoes do provide some good vitamin C and other things.   Tomatoes are also typically a good option for weight loss as they have a low calorie density.

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net carbs

insulin load carb insulin fat protein fibre
12g 20g 57% 73% 13%

6g

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Fine tuning your diet to suit your goals – Darth Luiggi

It looks like Luis Villasenor is doing something right.

Luis (aka Darth Luiggi who runs the Ketogains Facebook Group) has been on a ketogenic diet for more than 14 years!

Here are a couple of video interviews where Luis explains his approach.

He is also very active in coaching the more than 7000 Ketogains members on his Facebook group and Reddit.

image001

Recently I was able to get a look at a few days of Luis’s food diary on My Fitness Pal so I thought it would be interesting to run some numbers on his diet.

My focus of the blog has been on optimising diet for diabetes management, however I wanted to also demonstrate that a nutritious low insulin load diet is also great for health and fitness.

The analysis below shows the combination of three meals.  Along with plenty of protein (beef, chicken, egg, pork) he also has a solid amount of vegetables (broccoli, lettuce and spinach) as well as a good amount of added fats (butter, olive oil and coconut oil) to maintain ketosis.

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The nutritional analysis of these three meals is shown below.  As you would expect from the dude who runs Ketogains, the carbs are low at 5% with the protein being fairly substantial at 29% of daily calories.

The protein score is excellent with 145% of the RDI being met with 1000 calories and 58% of the RDI for vitamins and minerals being met with 1000 calories.

A score of 100 means that you will meet the recommended daily intake (RDI) for all the nutrients with 1000 calories, as discussed in the previous ‘the most nutrient dense food for different goals’ article.

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The table below shows how Luis’s diet stacks up based on the nutritional ketosis weighting.

At 26g of fibre per day his fibre score is solid but not high compared to the other meals analysed.  His calorie density is high but that isn’t a big issue given that he is already fairly lean.

The insulin score is not extremely high as there is a solid amount of protein and he’s not worried about diabetes or achieving therapeutic ketosis.

The vitamin and mineral score is the one area that could be improved, though it is better than average.

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As you will hear on the videos, Luis is already a big advocate for leafy greens as an integral part of a ketogenic diet.

If we did want to improve the vitamin and mineral score we could simply add extra spinach and broccoli (or any of the nutrient dense veggies from this list).

I’ve dropped the lettuce (which is not as nutrient dense) and increased the broccoli and spinach so we have 400g of each across the three meals.

The resultant nutritional analysis for the revised food diary is shown below.  The nutrient balance score has increased from 58 to 70 and we’d only have 8g of net carbohydrates per meal in spite of the significant increase in vitamins and minerals.

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With the increase in non-starchy veggies we increase the fibre intake from 26g to 40g across the three meals which would mean that he would now meet the recommended daily fibre intake of 30g per day for men.

The other advantage of this approach is that it would be more filling which may lead to a decreased overall calorie intake.  While Luis knows the power of a ketogenic diet for weight loss he also knows that to get such a low percentage body fat you also need to run in a calorie deficit and this approach may assist in naturally controlling appetite and satiety.

He is currently in a ‘cutting phase’ which is why he is tracking his food intake in My Fitness Pal, so reducing his calorie density and increasing fibre might help him to spontaneously achieve a reduction in overall energy intake.

If you’re interested in using the ketogenic diet as part of a bodybuilding routine I would definitely recommend checking out Ketogains.  Even though he looks tough with all those muscles he’s really polite, gracious and only too willing to help other people on the journey.  And regardless of your goals, Luis’s Ketogains calculator is an excellent tool if you want to calculate your macros or target grams of protein, fat and carbs.

bacon wrapped salmon

I found this particular bacon wrapped salmon recipe here (short demonstration video included).  It simply contains salmon, bacon shallots, olive oil, baby spinach with some salt, pepper and mustard!

This recipe has a good amount of fibre with the spinach and has only 9g net carbs for a 500 calorie serving. The insulinogenic ratio is fairly low at 22%.

With the shallots and spinach, along with the nutrients in the salmon, the vitamins and minerals score is high.  And then with protein from the salmon, bacon and the spinach it gets a great amino acid score.

Problem for us is that we can’t get non-farmed Atlantic salmon in Australia, so we try to get wild caught deep sea fish that isn’t pellet (grain) fed.

I also get some canned wild Alaskan salmon for lunches (or sardines which are cheaper) which is a great way to get some fish and omega-3s.

Hard to believe that something so yummy and indulgent could be so good for you.

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Here are the number for a 500 calorie serving.

net carbs

insulin load carb insulin fat protein

fibre

9g 28g 32% 61% 28%

5g

 

the most nutrient dense foods for different goals

While a lot of attention is often given to macronutrient balance, quantifying the vitamin and mineral sufficiency of our diet is typically done by guesswork.  This article lists the foods that are highest in amino acids, vitamins, minerals or omega 3 refined to suit people with different goals (e.g. diabetes management, weight loss, therapeutic ketosis or a metabolically healthy athlete).

I’ve spent some time lately analysing people’s food diaries, noting nutritional deficiencies, and suggesting specific foods to fill nutritional gaps while still being mindful of the capacity of the individual to process glucose based on their individual insulin sensitivity and pancreatic function.  The output from nutritiondata.self.com below shows an example of the nutrient balance and protein quality analysis.

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In this instance the meal has plenty of protein but is lacking in vitamins and minerals, which is not uncommon for people who are trying to reduce their carbohydrates to minimise their blood glucose levels.

The pink spokes of the nutrient balance plot on the left shows the vitamins while the white shows the minerals.  On the right hand side the individual spokes of the protein quality score represent individual amino acids.

A score of 100 means that you will meet the recommended daily intake (RDI) for all the nutrients with 1000 calories, so a score of 40 in the nutrient balance as shown is less than desirable if we are trying to maximise nutrition. [1]

I thought it would be useful to develop a ‘shortlist’ of foods to enable people to find foods with high levels of particular nutrients to fill in possible deficiencies while being mindful of their ability to deal with glucose.

essential nutrients

The list of essential nutrients below is the basis of the nutrient density scoring system used in the Your Personal Food Ranking System article, with equal weighting given to each of these essential nutrients. [2]

The only essential nutrients not included in this list are the omega-6 fatty acids which we typically get more than enough of in our western diet.  [3]

essential fatty acids

  1. alpha-Linolenic acid (omega-3) (18:3)
  2. docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3) (22:6)

amino acids

  1. cysteine
  2. isoleucine
  3. leucine
  4. lysine
  5. phenylalanine
  6. threonine
  7. tryptophan
  8. tyrosine
  9. valine
  10. methionine
  11. histidine

vitamins

  1. choline
  2. thiamine
  3. riboflavin
  4. niacin
  5. pantothenic acid
  6. vitamin A
  7. vitamin B12
  8. vitamin B6
  9. vitamin C
  10. vitamin D
  11. vitamin E
  12. vitamin K

minerals

  1. calcium
  2. copper
  3. iron
  4. magnesium
  5. manganese
  6. phosphorus
  7. potassium
  8. selenium
  9. sodium
  10. zinc

the lists

Previously I’ve developed short lists of nutrient dense foods also based on their insulin load or other parameters (see optimal foods lists).

But what if we want to get more specific and find the optimal foods for a diabetic who is getting adequate protein but needs more vitamins or minerals?  What about someone whose goal is nutritional ketosis who is trying to maximise their omega-3 fats to nurture their brain?

To this end the next step is to develop more specific lists of nutrient dense foods in specific categories (i.e. omega-3, vitamins, minerals and amino acids) which can be tailored to individual carbohydrate tolerance levels.

I’ve exported the top foods using each of the ranking criteria from the 8000 foods in the database.  You can click on the ‘download’ link to open the .pdf to see the full list.  Each .pdf file shows the relative weighting of the various components of the multi criteria ranking system.  The top five are highlighted in the following discussion below.

It’s worth noting that the ranking system is based on both nutrient density / calorie, and calorie density / weight.  Considering nutrient density / calorie will preference low calorie density foods such as leafy veggies and herbs.  Considering calorie density / weight tends to prioritise animal foods.  Evenly balancing both parameters seems to be a logical approach.

You’re probably not going to get your daily energy requirements from basil and parsley so you’ll realistically need to move down the list to the more calorie dense foods once you’ve eaten as much of the green leafy veggies as you can.  The same also applies if some foods listed are not available in your area.

weighting all nutrients omega-3 vitamins minerals aminos
no insulin index contribution download download download download download
athlete download download download download download
weight loss download download download download download
diabetes and nutritional ketosis download download download download download
therapeutic ketosis download download download download download

all nutrients

This section looks at the most nutrient dense foods across all of the essential nutrients shown above.  Consider including the weighting tables.

no insulin index contribution

If we do not consider insulin load then we get the following highly nutrient dense foods:

  1. liver,
  2. cod,
  3. parsley,
  4. white fish, and
  5. spirulina / seaweed

Liver tops the list.  This aligns with Matt Lalonde’s analysis of nutrient density as detailed in his AHS 2012 presentation.

It’s likely the nutrient density of cod, which is second on the list of the most nutrient dense foods, is the reason that Dwayne Johnson (a.k.a. The Rock) eats an inordinate amount of it. [4]

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It certainly seems to be working for him.

Duane Johnson 2 - Copy

athlete and metabolically healthy

If you have no issue with obesity or insulin resistance then you’ll likely want to simply select foods at the top of the nutrient dense foods list.  However most people will also benefit from considering their insulin load along with fibre and calorie density.   Most of us mere mortals aren’t as active or metabolically healthy as Dwayne.

When we consider insulin load we get the following foods at the top of the list:

  1. basil,
  2. parsley,
  3. spearmint,
  4. paprika, and
  5. liver

We grow basil in a little herb garden and use it to make a pesto with pine nuts, parmesan and olive oil.  It’s so delicious!   (And when I say ‘we’ I mean my amazing wife Monica.)

Aaron Tait Photography

You’ll note that spices and herbs typically rank highly in a lot of these lists.  The good news is that they typically have a very low calorie density, high nutrient density and are high in fibre.

The challenge again is that it’s hard to get all your energy needs from herbs alone, so after you’ve included as many herbs and green leafy veggies as you can fit in, go further down the list to select other more calorie dense foods to meet your required intake.

weight loss

If we reduce calorie density, increase fibre and pay some attention to insulin load for the weight loss scenario we get the following foods:

  1. wax gourd (winter melon),
  2. basil,
  3. endive,
  4. chicory, and
  5. dock

If you’re wondering what a winter melon looks like (like I was), here it is.

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The winter melon does well in this ranking because it is very fibrous, has a very low calorie density and a very low 8% insulinogenic calories which means that it has very few digestible carbohydrates.

Again, basil does pretty well along with a range of nutrient dense herbs.  Basil is more nutrient dense than the winter melon while still having a very low calorie density.

diabetes and nutritional ketosis

If we factor carbohydrate tolerance into the mix and want to keep the insulin load of our diet low we get the following foods:

  1. wax gourd (winter melon),
  2. chia seeds,
  3. flax seeds,
  4. avocado, and
  5. olives

Wax gourd does well again due to its high fibre and low calorie density; however if you’re looking for excellent nutrient density as well, then chia seeds and flax seeds may be better choices.  When it comes to flax seeds are best eaten ‘fresh ground’ (in a bullet grinder) for digestibility and also freshness and that over consumption may be problematic when it comes to increasing estrogens.

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therapeutic ketosis

Then if we’re looking for the most nutrient dense foods that will support therapeutic ketosis we get the following list:

  1. flax seeds,
  2. fish oils,
  3. wax gourd,
  4. avocado, and
  5. brazil nuts.

Good nutrition is about more than simply eating more fat.  When you look at the top foods using this ranking you’ll see that you will need to use a little more discretion (e.g. avoiding vegetable oils, margarine and fortified products) due to the fact that nutrients and fibre have such a low ranking.

ganze und halbe reife avocado isoliert auf weissem hintergrund

fatty acids

Omega-3 fats are important and most of us generally don’t get enough, but rather get too many omega-6 fats from grain based processed foods.

Along with high levels of processed carbohydrates, excess levels of processed omega-6 fats are now being blamed for the current obesity epidemic. [5]

The foods highlighted in the following section will help you get more omega-3 to correct the balance.

no insulin index contribution

If we’re looking for the foods that are the highest in omega 3 fatty acids without consideration of insulin load we get:

  1. salmon,
  2. whitefish,
  3. shad,
  4. fish oil, and
  5. herring

I like salmon, but it’s not cheap.  I find sardines are still pretty amazing but much more cost effective. [6]  If you’re going to pay for salmon to get omega 3 fatty acids then you should make sure it’s wild caught to avoid the omega 6 oils and antibiotics in the grain fed farmed salmon.

Sardines have a very high nutrient density but still not as much omega 3 fatty (i.e. 1480mg per 100g for sardines versus 2586mg per 100g for salmon).

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athlete and metabolically healthy

If we factor in some consideration of insulin load, fibre and calorie density we get:

  1. salmon,
  2. marjoram,
  3. chia seeds,
  4. shad, and
  5. white fish

It’s interesting to see that there are also  excellent vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids such as marjoram (pictured below) and chia seeds (though some may argue that the bio-availability of the omega 3 in the salmon is better than the plant products).

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weight loss

Some of the top ranking foods with omega-3 fatty acids for weight loss are:

  1. brain,
  2. chia seeds,
  3. sablefish,
  4. mackerel, and
  5. herring

While seafood is expensive, brain is cheap, though a little higher on the gross factor.

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Cancer survivor Andrew Scarborough tries to maximise omega 3 fatty acids to keep his brain tumour and epilepsy at bay and makes sure he eats as much brain as he can.

diabetes, nutritional ketosis and therapeutic ketosis

And if you wanted to know the oils with the highest omega-3 content, here they are:

  1. Fish oil – menhaden,
  2. Fish oil – sardine,
  3. Fish oil – salmon,
  4. Fish oil – cod liver, and
  5. Oil – seal

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amino acids

This section will be of interest to people trying to build muscle by highlighting the foods highest in amino acids.

no insulin index contribution

So what are the best sources of protein, regardless of insulin load?

  1. cod,
  2. egg white,
  3. soy protein isolate,
  4. whitefish, and
  5. whole egg

Again, Dwayne Johnson’s cod does well, but so does the humble egg, either the whites or the whole thing.

We have been told to limit egg consumption over the last few decades, but now, in case you didn’t get the memo, saturated fat is no longer a nutrient of concern so they’re OK again.

And while egg whites do well if you’re only looking for amino acids, however if you are also chasing vitamins, minerals and good fats I’d prefer to eat the whole egg.

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athlete and metabolically healthy

If you have some regard for the insulin load of your diet you end up with this list of higher fat foods:

  1. parmesan cheese,
  2. beef,
  3. tofu,
  4. whole egg, and
  5. cod.

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weight loss

If we aim for lower calorie density foods for weight loss we get this list:

  1. bratwurst,
  2. basil,
  3. beef,
  4. chia seeds, and
  5. parmesan cheese

The bratwurst sausage does really well in the nutrition analysis because it is nutrient dense both in amino acids and high fat which keeps the insulin load down.

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diabetes and nutritional ketosis

If you’re concerned about your blood glucose levels then this list of foods may be useful:

  1. chia seeds,
  2. flax seed,
  3. pork sausage,
  4. bratwurst, and
  5. sesame seeds

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Therapeutic ketosis

And those who are aiming for therapeutic ketosis who want to keep their insulin load from low protein may find these foods useful:

  1. flax seed,
  2. pork sausage,
  3. sesame seeds,
  4. chia seeds, and
  5. pork

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vitamins

People focusing on reducing their carbohydrate load will sometimes neglect vitamins and minerals, especially if they are counting total carbs rather than net carbs which can lead to neglecting veggies.

I think most people should be trying to increase the levels of indigestible fibre as it decreases the insulin load of their diet, [7] feeds good gut bacteria, leaves you feeling fuller for longer and generally comes packaged with heaps of good vitamins and minerals.

At the same time it is true that some high fibre foods also come with digestible carbohydrates which may not be desirable for someone who is trying to manage the insulin load of their diet.

The foods listed in this section will enable you to increase your vitamins while managing the insulin load of your diet to suit your goals.

no insulin index contribution

These foods will give you the biggest bang for your buck in the vitamin and mineral department if insulin resistance is not an issue for you:

  1. red peppers,
  2. liver,
  3. chilli powder,
  4. coriander, and
  5. egg yolk

Peppers (or capsicums as they’re called in Australia) are great in omelettes. image031

Liver is also very high in vitamins if you just can’t tolerate veggies.

athlete and metabolically healthy

If we bring the insulin load of your diet into consideration then these foods come to the top of the list:

  1. paprika,
  2. chilli powder,
  3. liver,
  4. red peppers, and
  5. sage

It’s interesting to see so many spices ranking so highly in these lists.  Not only are they nutrient dense but they also make the foods taste better and are more satisfying.

image034

Good food doesn’t have to taste bland!

weight loss

If weight loss is of interest to you then this list of lower calorie density foods might be useful:

  1. chilli powder,
  2. chicory greens,
  3. paprika,
  4. liver, and
  5. spinach

It will be very challenging to eat too many calories with these foods.  We find spinach to be pretty versatile whether it is in a salad or an omelette.

image036

diabetes and nutritional ketosis

These foods will give you lots of vitamins if you are trying to manage your blood glucose levels:

  1. chilli powder,
  2. endive,
  3. paprika
  4. turnip greens, and
  5. liver

Most green leafy veggies will be great for people with diabetes as well as providing excellent nutrient density and heaps of fibre.

image037

therapeutic ketosis

If you really need to keep your blood sugars down then getting your vitamins from these foods may be helpful:

  1. chilli powder,
  2. liver,
  3. liver sausage,
  4. egg yolk, and
  5. avocado

image039

minerals

no insulin index contribution

Ever wondered which real whole foods would give you the most minerals per calorie without resorting to supplements?

Here’s your answer:

  1. coriander,
  2. celery seed,
  3. basil,
  4. parsley, and
  5. spearmint

Even if you found a vitamin and mineral supplement that ticked off on all the essential nutrients there’s no guarantee that they will be absorbed by your body, or that you’re not missing a nutrient that is not currently deemed ‘essential’.  Real foods will always trump supplements!

As you look down these lists you may notice that herbs and spices top the list of foods that have a lot of minerals.  Once you have eaten as much coriander, basil, parsley and spearmint as you can and still feel hungry keep doing down the list and you will find more calorie dense foods such as spinach, eggs, sunflower seeds, and sesame seeds etc which are more common and easier to fill up on.

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athlete and metabolically healthy

If we factor in some consideration of insulin load then we get this list:

  1. basil,
  2. spearmint,
  3. wheat bran (crude),
  4. parsley, and
  5. marjoram

Wheat bran (crude) features in this list but it’s very rarely eaten in this natural state.  Most of the value is lost when you remove the husk from the wheat.

As much as we’re told that we shouldn’t eliminate whole food groups, grain based products just don’t rate well when you prioritise foods in terms of nutrient density.

image043

weight loss

If you’re looking for some lower calorie density options the list changes slightly:

  1. basil,
  2. caraway seed,
  3. marjoram,
  4. wheat bran (crude), and
  5. chilli powder

image044

diabetes and nutritional ketosis

If you’re trying to manage your blood sugars then this is your list of foods that are packed with minerals:

  1. basil,
  2. caraway seed,
  3. flax seed,
  4. chilli powder, and
  5. rosemary.

image045

therapeutic ketosis

If you’re aiming for therapeutic ketosis then the higher fat nuts come into the picture to get your minerals:

  1. flaxseed,
  2. sesame seed,
  3. pine / pinon nuts,
  4. sunflower seeds, and
  5. hazel nuts.

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application

So what does all this mean and how can we apply it?

I don’t think it’s necessary or ideal to track your food all the time, however it’s well worth taking a typical day of food and entering it into the recipe builder at nutritiondata.self.com to see where you might be lacking.

Are your vitamins or minerals low?  Protein?  What about fibre.

If you find these are lacking you can use these food lists to fill nutritional gaps while keeping in mind your ability to process carbohydrates and attaining your personal goals.

references

[1] http://nutritiondata.self.com/help/analysis-help

[2] http://ketopia.com/nutrient-density-sticking-to-the-essentials-mathieu-lalonde-ahs12/

[3] The omega 6 fatty acids are also classed as essential however it is generally recognised that we have more omega omega 6 than omega 3.

[4] http://www.muscleandfitness.com/nutrition/meal-plans/smell-what-rock-cooking

[5] http://ebm.sagepub.com/content/233/6/674.short

[6] http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/finfish-and-shellfish-products/4114/2

[7] https://optimisingnutrition.wordpress.com/2015/03/30/what-about-fibre-net-carbs-or-total-carbs/

spinach, avocado and eggs

This simple breakfast idea was inspired by Tim Ferris’ slow carb breakfast with spinach and eggs with some avocado and hollandaise sauce thrown in for good measure.  Lots of fibre, only two grams of net carbs, truck loads of nutrition and a very gentle impact on blood sugars.

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net carbs

insulin load carb insulin fat protein

fibre

5g 15g 33% 76% 13%

11g

Initially when I started running meals through the ranking system I was interested in analysing a wide range of meals and approaches that people had found useful to see what could be learned.  In the Four Hour Body Time Ferriss details his concept of a “slow carb” breakfast which he shows you how to make in this video.  From the feedback it seems that this approach has worked for a lot of people.

Ferriss’ based recipe involves frozen spinach, eggs, flaxseed oil, lemon juice and salsa and all done in the microwave in less than three minutes. Perfect time-efficient bachelor chow!  Maybe?  Or maybe not?

I find Tim’s podcast fascinating (not just about diet).  He’s always looking for life hacks and learnings to improve productivity.  It’s interesting to note that Tim more recently has transitioned to a more ketogenic dietary approach to improve recovery and mental performance.

The base recipe that he discusses in this video isn’t necessarily low carb (with lentils) or high fat (he uses egg whites rather than whole eggs to minimise fat) but it is quite nutrient dense with the eggs and the spinach.

Lentils are fairly nutrient dense and cheap which is probably fine if you’re insulin sensitive but not such a great idea if you’re insulin resistant.

The nutrient score of Ferriss’ base recipe shown below does well on the nutrient score but not so well on the amino score with only the egg whites rather than whole eggs.

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Dropping the lentils and using whole eggs rather than egg whites provides a much better protein score and much more diabetic friendly 11% carbs as you can see in the analysis below.

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The analysis below is with lentils and whole eggs.  The lentils option had a lower vitamins and minerals score but a higher amino acid score with a wider range of proteins.

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In the end, I think the option with spinach, eggs and avocado is a great balance between nutrient density, protein completeness and diabetic friendly high fat / low carbs.

fine tuning your diet to suit your goals – Chris Kelly

I’m a big fan of Chris Kelly’s Nourish Balance Thrive podcast[1]

It’s sort of like listening to Jimmy Moore, Dave Asprey and Ben Greenfield all rolled into one, but even nerdier and more intellectually challenging.

I first heard the term “glucogenic protein” on one of Chris’s podcasts [2] and went searching  to learn more and the epic Insulin Index V2 article was the result.

I also have really enjoyed Chris’ discussion about heart rate variability (HRV), gut health and a range of other intriguing subjects. [3]

Chris is a software engineer who used to work for a hedge fund and has now chosen to go into full time nutritional therapy counselling with a bit of pro-mountain biking on the side!  He’s also into kettlebells.

He has basically mastered all my passions and hobbies and taken them to the elite level!  I’m not that jealous, really.

Chris is another endurance athlete who found he had pre-diabetic blood sugars (like Tim Noakes, Ben Greenfield and Sami Inkenen), and has turned to the ketogenic diet to normalise his blood sugars.

image001

Chris’s diet

Chris posted his daily food dairy outputs from cron-o-metre [4] on Facebook recently and gave me permission to run the numbers on it to see what we could learn.

image003

Using cron-o-metre is superior to MyFitnessPal because it tracks your micronutrients in addition to calories and macronutrients.

As shown in nutritional analysis below, Chris’s nutrient dense diet has achieved the RDI for all of the key micronutrients.   His protein intake is solid but not high at about 1.5g/kg LBM.

Chris uses MCT oil to fuel his cycling with some slow release Superstarch to top off his glycogen stores for races without throwing him out of ketosis.

image005

The plot of Chris’s macronutrients from his daily food diary shows that his diet is certainly ketogenic.  When he occasionally measures his blood ketones they’re pretty high at around 2.1mmol/L. [5]

At the same time he gets a really solid 46g of fibre per day (compared to the RDI of 30g for men), with a low 5% net carbs and a very low 16% insulinogenic calories.  One of the issues I see for a lot of people trying to reduce their carbohydrates is that they struggle to get enough fibre for digestion and good gut health.

image007

nutritional analysis

But can a diet that is so highly ketogenic also provide adequate nutrition?   I ran his daily food diary though nutrientdata.self.com and the results are solid.

image009

The nutritional content would depend heavily on the source of his beef ground  beef  which makes up most of his protein on the day I have analysed.  I know Chris also goes out of his way to eat organ meats, and the locally sourced grain feed beef that he gets would likely have a higher protein quality score than the ground beef profile in the USDA database.

It should also be noted that the data from his daily food diary entered into nutritiondata.self.com hasn’t captured everything given, because it didn’t seem to have yerba mate tea, kim chi and bone broth which would have a bunch more nutrients.

increasing the protein score

The table below shows how Chris’s food diary stacks up against the 200 or so other meals and daily diaries that I have analysed.  I have used the diabetic / nutritional ketosis weighting in the ranking which prioritises a low insulin load with solid vitamins, minerals and protein.

image011

The only area where the “base” food diary is lacking compared to the other meals is the protein score.  The score of 0.01 for protein means that it is about average for the 200 meals analysed.

The calorie density score is low, however this is not a problem given that Chris is already quite lean (as you can see from the photo above).

Chris uses MCT oil to fuel his cycling, and weight loss is not a goal.  Trying to get him to reduce the calorie density of his diet with more broccoli and mushrooms would mean that he just couldn’t physically get in enough fuel!

You can see from the comparison of the nutrients and amino acids from various protein sources below that muscle meat is not necessarily the most nutrient dense source of protein.

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If we replace the ground beef with sardines which have a higher quality of amino acids we get the updated nutritional profile shown below.  Both the protein score and the vitamin score has increased with the sardines.

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So overall, Chris’s diet is currently well suited to his goals; however, refining the quality of the protein source could further improve the vitamin and mineral content of his diet.

Overall, I think Chris’s diet is a great example of how someone can get great nutrition and high amounts of fibre while still achieving ketosis.

references

[1] http://www.nourishbalancethrive.com/podcasts

[2] http://www.nourishbalancethrive.com/blog/2014/12/29/protein-transcription/

[3] http://www.nourishbalancethrive.com/blog/2014/12/16/how-track-hrv-measure-progress/

[4] https://cronometer.com/

[5] https://www.facebook.com/groups/optimisingnutrition/permalink/1462501844050859/

cheesy garlic bread

Moni made this yummy Cheesy Garlic Bread creation from Cut the Wheat.  Very very moorish!  The kids love this stuff!

Like most of the faux bread creations in the low carb world it relies heavily on cheese and almond flour which, for me, goes down easy, but occasionally makes me feel a bloated if I have too much.

The net carbs are quite low at about 7g per 500 calorie serving (if you can keep it to that!), but once you count the protein from the cheese and the almond meal, the proportion of insulinogenic calories is 22% (i.e. still less than a whole egg at 25%).

The bread alone is fairly low in micronutrients.

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net carbs

insulin load carb insulin fat protein

fibre

7g 28g 25% 60% 31%

4g

However if we add some bacon and veggies to the mix, both the protein and other nutrients jump up to give a very respectable nutrient score.

Overall, this appears to be a good garlic bread option if you have it with something else to break it up.

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Even with the beans and tomato the net carbs are still fairly low and you may not end up binging on the yummy cheesy garlic bread.

net carbs

insulin load carb insulin fat protein

fibre

12g 32g 37% 55% 29%

8g